a&p 2

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
174518
Filename:
a&p 2
Updated:
2012-09-30 16:49:32
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chemistry comes alive
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carcel
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  1. same #P/E 
    diff #N
    isotopes
  2. atoms decompose spontaneously into more stable forms
    radioactivity
  3. substances composed of 2+ components physically intermixed
    mixtures
  4. homogeneous mixtures of components 
    solutions
  5. bonds b/w atoms formed by the transfer of 1+ e-
    ionic
  6. e- sharing 
    covalent
  7. unequal e- sharing
    polar
  8. equal e- sharing
    nonpolar
  9. formed when a H atom is attracted by another e-hungry atom so that a "bridge" forms 
    hydrogen bond
  10. basis of all rxns where food is catabolized (broken down)
    Redox Rxn
  11. reactant losing e- =====
    e- donor oxidized
  12. reactant gaining e- ====
    e- acceptor is reduced
  13. as more collisions in a system occur, there will be more combinations of molecules bouncing into each other
    collision theory
  14. Factors influencing Reaction Rate
    • -temp/pressure
    • -[ ]
    • - catalyst
    • -SA
    • -Nature of Reactants
  15. contains carbon
    is covalently bonded
    organic cmpd
  16. all other chemicals in the body
    inorganic cmpd
  17. importance of water
    • high heat of vaporization
    • high heat capacity
    • reactivity
    • polar solvent properties
    • cushioning
  18. ionic cmpd containg cations (other than H+) & anions (other than OH-)
    salt
  19. salt dissolves ----> component ions
    dissociate
  20. substance that conducts electrical current
    - salts, acids/bases
    electrolyte
  21. common salts in the body
    • NaCl
    • CaCo3
    • KCl
  22. the kidney's job
    proper ionic balance
  23. acid
    proton donor (relases H+)
  24. base
    proton acceptor (takes in H+)
  25. a measure of hydrogen ions in solution in moles per liter or molarity
    ph
  26. chemicals that resist large or abrupt changes in pH by acting as:

    acids when pH rises &
    bases when pH drops
    buffers
  27. disaccharides formed by:
    dehydration synthesis
  28. fats & oils
    insoluble in water,C,H & O
    lipids
  29. 3 fatty acids & a glycerol; stored fuel
    triglycerides
  30. polar "head" & nonpolar "tail"
    form cell membranes
    phospholipids
  31. 4 interlocking hydrocarbon rings
    steroids
  32. structural material and enzymes;C,H,O,N, some contain phosphorous or sulfur
    proteins
  33. amino acids joined by dehydration synthesis
    peptide bond
  34. primary
    "strand" of amino acids
  35. secondary
    twist or coil
  36. tetiary
    helix or pleat folds in on itself to form a "glob" 3D shape
  37. quaternary
    two or more polypeptide chains folded with each other
  38. fibrous
    fiber-like, collagen, keratin, actin & myosin in muscles; structural
  39. globular
    • compact, spherical
    • enzymes, hemoglobin, antibodies
    • functional
  40. globular proteins that help other proteins fold properly
    molecular chaperons
  41. globular proteins that act as biological catalysts to regulate or accelerate reaction but are not used up during reaction
    characteristic of enzymes
  42. vitamin or metallic ions necessary for proper protein function
    coenzyme
  43. -"ase" 
    helps break down the sugar lactose
  44. mechanism of enzyme activity:
    • 1. enzyme binds with substrate
    • 2. enzyme-substrate complex rearranges
    • 3. enzyme releases product
  45. made of C,H,O,N,P
    nucleic acids
  46. made of N base, 5C sugar, & a phosphate group
    Nucleotides-monomer
  47. Nitrogen bases: Purines vs. Pyrimidines
    • Purines: adenine, guanine
    • Pyrimidines are: thymine, cytosine & uracil
  48. found in nucleus of cell
    genetic material, replicates
    provides intructions for making proteins
    (double helix)
    DNA
  49. inside & out nucleus
    carries out intructions in DNA
    (single strand)
    RNA
  50. glucose is broken down during cellular respiration into energy packets the cells can use for reactions; each glucose molecule produces 36 # of ____
    ATP
  51. dissociate in water releasing H+ and a negative ion other than OH-
    acid

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