Bio Midterm Review Part 2

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Bio Midterm Review Part 2
2012-10-01 00:44:37

Cells and Organelles
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  1. Describe the structure of the Nucleus
    • Surrounded by a nuclear enveloppe composed of double membranes with pores
    • Contains a nucleolus
    • Contains chromatin (DNA uncoils)
  2. Describe the function of the Nucleus
    • Controls the activity of a cell
    • Site of transcription
  3. Describe the structure of the Nucleolus
    • Dense area located in the nucleus
    • Not membrane-bound
  4. Describe the function of the Nucleolus
    • Site of rRNA synthesis
    • Synthesis of ribosomes
  5. Describe the structure of a Ribosome
    Two sub-units composed of rRNA + protein

    • Free ribosome
    • In cytoplasm on cytoskeleton

    • Bound ribosome
    • Attached on the outside surface of the RER
  6. Describe the function of a Ribosome
    • Site of all protein synthesis -> 8 functions of proteins
    • Protein exportation
  7. Describe the structure of an RER (rough endoplasmic reticulum)
    • Network of membranes contiunous (attached to) the nucleus
    • Has bound ribosomes
  8. Describe the function of the RER
    • Protein exportation
    • Synthesis of glycoproteins
  9. Describe the structure of the SER
    Network of bound membranes with no bound ribosomes
  10. Describe the function of the SER
    • Synthesis of lipids (i.e. phospholipids)
    • Detoxification of drugs + toxins
  11. Describe the structure of the Golgi apparatus (complexe, body)
    • Flaps of membranes with distended ends
    • Surrounded by vesicles
  12. Describe the function of the Golgi
    • Stores, processes and delivers proteins
    • Sythesis of lysosomes
    • "Lays down" cellulose to create cell wall in plants
  13. Describe the structure of a lysosome
    • Membrane-bound sack containing strong enzymes for hydrolysis 
    • Found only in animal cells
  14. Describe the stucture of a vacuole in an animal cell
    Small and membrane bound
  15. Describe the function of a vacuole in an animal cell
    • Food vacuole
    • Formed by phagocytosis for intracellular digestion

    • Contractile vacuole
    • Pumps water out of cell with ATP
  16. Describe the structure of a vacuole in plant cells
    Very large, membrane bound
  17. Describe the function of a vacuole in plant cells
    Used for storage, tugor pressure, breaking down damaged organells 
  18. What does the endomembrane system consist of?
    Nucleus, RER, SER, Golgi, Lysosomes, Plasma Membrane
  19. Describe the structure of a peroxisome
    • Membrane-bound
    • Holds enzymes
  20. Describe the function of a peroxisome
    • Breaking down fatsoils for energy, to make ATP in mitochodria
    • Breakdown of alcohol in liver
  21. Describe the structure of a centrosome
    • Dense area near nucleus, not membrane-bound
    • Found in both plant and animal cells
  22. Describe the funtion of a centrosome
    • Makes the cytoskeleton
    • Makes the mitotic spindle
  23. Describe the structure of centrioles
    • Found only in animal cells
    • Two rods at right angles eache composed of 9 triplets of micro-tubules