Bio 2 Test

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  1. Eukaryotic Cell V.S Prokaryotic
    • Location of DNA is different
    • Eukaryotic -> DNA in nucleus       
    •       -Larger in size -> Metabolism
    • Prokaryotic -> DNA in nucleoid    
    •       - not membrane -enclosed
  2. Cytoplasm
    • Gel like substance between nucleus and plasma membrane
    • holds all cell's internal organelles outside the nucleus
    • All contents of prokaryotic(lack nucleus) are hold in cytoplasm
  3. Cytosol
    Semifluid, jellylike substance inside all cells, subcellular components are suspended
  4. Plasma membrane
    • selective barrier that bounds cell   
    • allows passage of enough oxygen, nutrients and waste to service the entire celllimit amount of substance passage 
    • surface area: volume -> critical 
  5. Nucleus
    • organelle which bounded by double membrane
    • Nuclear envelope
    • nucleolus
    • Chromatin
  6. Nuclear envelope
    • seperate contens from cytoplasm
    • double membrane enclosing the nucleus; perforated by pores; continuous with ER
    • nuclear pores -> pore complex -> regular the entry & exit of protein, RNA, oter macromolecules
    • nuclear lamina - netlike array of proteins flamonts maintains shape of nucleus
  7. Nucleolus
    • Nonmembranous structure involved in productions of ribosomes; a nucleus has one or more nucleoli
    • contains most of the genes in eukaryotic cell. Some at mitochondria & chloroplast
    • rRNA(ribosomes) synthesized here
    • proteins +rRNA = submits of ribosomes
  8. Chromatin
    material consisting of DNA and proteinsl visible in a dividing cell as individual condensed chromosomes
  9. Chromosomes
    • make up by Chromotin
    • carry genetic inf. in form of DNA
    • human has 46 chromosomes and 23 sex cells
  10. Ribosomes
    • Tiny complexes that make proteins; free in cytosol or bound to rough ER or nuclear envelope
    • make proteins in two cytoplasic
    •        - free ribisomes - suspended in cytosol -> make most of the proteins 
    •         - bound ribosomes - make proteins for insertion into membrane or for export from cell
  11. Endomembrane System
    • nuclear envelope, ER,Golgi apparatus, lysomes, vesicle, plasma membrane
    • synthesis of proteins, transport protein into membrane and organelles or out of the cell
    • metabolism
    • movement of lipidsde
    • toxacation of poisons
  12. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    • network of emembranous sacs tubes; active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes
    • rough ER & smooth ER
  13. Smooth ER
    • diverse metabolic process
    • synthesis of lipids, metabolism of carbohydrate
    • detoxification
    • steroids
    • store calcium
  14. Rough ER
    • Proteins produced by ribosomes are attached
    • Polypetides enter ER lumen -> glycoproteins(carbohydrates) -> ER membrane -> transport vesicles
  15. Golgi apparatus
    • ER products are modified, receiving, storing, shipping, manufacturing
    • consist of stacks of cisternae, flattened sacs
    • receives and dispatched transport vesicles
    • directionality w/ cis face(receiving vesicles) and trans face(dispatching vesicles)
  16. Lysosomes (Eukaryotic Only)
    • membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an animal cell uses to digest (hydrolyze) best in the acidic environment found in lysosomes.made by Rough ER
    • phagocytosis - digistive process
    • autophagy -recycle the cell’s own organic material
  17. vacuole
    • large vesicle derived from ER & Golgi apparatus
    • Food vacuole - formed by phagoeytosis
  18. Contractile vacuole
    • pump out excessive water to maintain conventration ion and molecules
    • carry out enzymative hydrolysis
    • hold reserve of imporntant organic compounds, poisons, pigments
  19. Central vacuole
    • cell sap, plant's main resporitory of inorganic ions.
    • major role on growth of plant cells by absorbing water
  20. Mitochondria
    • Chemical energy conversion, cellular respiration, metabolic process to generate ATP
    • double membrane with phoslipids bilayers
    •   - outer = soft
    •   -inner = cristae infolds -> give membrane large surface area
    • Two parts :
    •   - intermembrane space
    •   - mitochondiral matris -> contains enzymes, DNA,m Ribosomes. Catalyze step of celluar respiration
  21. Chloroplast
    • 3 parts : intermembrane space, and below
    • Thylakoids - another membranous system in form of flattend sac(granum)
    • Stroma - fluid outside thykaloid, contains DNA and ribosoms, enzymes
  22. Perixisomes Oxidation
    • Metabolic compartment bound by single membrane
    • contains enzyme that remove hydrogen atoms
    • use oxygen to break fatty acids , transfer to mitochodria as furl
    • detoxify alchohol and harmful components
    • Ex: glyxysomes
  23. Cytoskeletons
    • Support and Motility
    • network of fibers that organize structures and activities
    • matin cell shapes
    • work with motor proteins, plasma membrane to allow cells to move along fibers outside the cell
    • 3 components:
    • microtubules, microfilament, intermediate filament
  24. Microtubules
    • Compression ressit, Tubli
    • Move fluid over the surface of tissue
    • Flagella ( force in same direction)
    • Cillia( force on perpendicular direction)
    • 9-2 mobile 9-0 not
    • dynein movement -> cross link proteins -> yes= cilium bend. no + cilium glide
  25. Microfillaments (actin)
    • cell motility of muscle cells
    • cortex- give outer cytoplasmic layer of cell
    • myosin - motor protein help "walk" along the actin filament
    • pseudophodia - extend actin into microfilament networks, sol -> gel
    • cytoplasmic streaming - circular flow of cytoplas
  26. Intermediate Filaments
    • Permanent fixtures, disassemble and reassemble
    • reinforce  the shape of cell-> specific function
    • make up nuclear lamina
  27. Cell Wall
    • matin shape, prevent water leakage
    • microfibris synthesized by an enzyme -> embedded in a matris of polysacharides

    • primary cell wall
    • middle lamella- thin sticky polysaccharides (pectin)
    • secondary cell wall
  28. The Extracelluar Matrix (EMC) of animal cells
    • glycoproteins and carbohydrates related molecules
    • collage - most abundant glycoproteins in ECM, 40% of human proteins
    • embeded in proteoflycens - protein with chains of carb.
    • fubronectin bind integrins - > build into plasma membrane
  29. Animal Junctions
    • Tight Juntions
    •    - plasma membrane are tightly pressed againts each other
    •     - prevent leakage of fluid
    • Demosome
    •     - attach muscle cells, fastening together into strong sheets
    • Gap Junctions
    •      -similar to plasma membrane
    •      - provide cytoplasmic channels
    •      - nessary for communication between cells,
Card Set:
Bio 2 Test
2012-10-04 15:50:28

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