Module 3

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Module 3
2012-09-30 18:37:59

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  1. Ester
    • Formed from reaction of acid and alcohol
    • Found in fats, oils, also nerve chemical acetylcholine
  2. Hydroxyl
    • same as in bases
    • found in alcohols and sugars
    • makes organic molecules water-soluble
  3. Carboxyl
    • organic acid (H+ easily donated)
    • also written ---COOH
    • usually charged (ie. ---COO-) at cellular pH
  4. Amino
    • acts as base
    • binds H+to form ---NH3+ at cellular pH
    • amino + carboxyl in same molecule is an amino acid
  5. Phosphate
    found in energy-storing molecules and in nucleic acids (DNA, RNA)
  6. Carbonyl
    • carbon and oxygen in double covalent bond
    • found in ketones, formed when fats are broken down
    • water-loving groups
  7. Sulfhydryl
    • like Hydroxyl, but sulfur + hydrogen
    • important in protein structure
  8. Carboxyl
    • organic acid (H+ easily donated)
    • Also written ---COOH
    • usually charged (ie ---COO-) at cellular pH
  9. Define Organic Molecules
    are those that contain carbon.  More complex than inorganic molecules.  Generally, larger than inorganic molecules.
  10. Examples of Organic Molecules
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acids (DNA, RNA)
    • Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
  11. Define Isomer
    When molecules have the same number of atoms of each element, but different arrangements.
  12. An isomer are uncommon outside of
    Carbon-based compounds, but common in compunds that contain carbon.
  13. What are the four main kinds of biological molecules.
    • Carbohydrates (sugars)
    • Lipids (fats)
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acids
  14. Carbohydrates
    • Watered carbon.
    • Always one carbon plus one water (H2O): formula CxH2xOx
  15. Lipids (fats)
    More carbon than oxygen; repel water (hydrophobic)
  16. Proteins (made up of amino acid)
    Amino acids always contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.

    Some amino acids contain sulfur
  17. Nucleic Acids
    • Sugar "backbone" plus nitrogenous base
    •         Nitrogenous base with one or two rings.
    •               One-ring pyrimidines (uracil, thymine, cytosine)
    •               Two-ring purines (adenine, guanine) 
    • Deoxyribose backbone: deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    • Ribose backbone: ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  18. Define Monomer
    are single units
  19. A carbohydrate monomer is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) such as
  20. A protein monomer is an
    amino acid
  21. a nucleic acid monomer is a
  22. Define Polymer
    When monomers are bound together in a string or branched structure.
  23. Polymers of carbohydrates include many
    sugars, starches, and glycogen.
  24. Polymers of amino acids are
    polypeptides and proteins.
  25. Polymers of nucleotides are the
    deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules.
  26. Define Carbohydrate
    • Five or six carbons
    • Always carbon + water
    • Form ring structures by linking carbons 1 and 5 through an O
  27. Sugars form
  28. Carbohydrates such as glucose often form
    ring structures with themselves.
  29. Define dehydration synthesis
    When two or more carbohydrate molecules are strung together this way, the series of dehydrations results in a carbohydrate polymer.
  30. A final shorthand way of representing carbohydrates is to
    drop the C atoms altogether. This is because carbons always form four bonds, so any time we see four lines converging on a point, we assume that point contains a C atom.