Chemistry I Exam 2

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Chemistry I Exam 2
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2012-09-30 21:25:02
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Chemistry I Exam 2
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  1. Anion
    An atom that has gained electrons

    when an atom gains electrons ot becomes negatively charged
  2. catalyst
    a substance or substances added to a reaction to alter it's rate

    or change the speed of the reaction
  3. molecule
    a combination of two or more atoms
  4. formula
    a group of symbols that represent all the elements present in a compound or molecule
  5. ion
    a "changed" atom

    it has either a positive or negative charge

    the atom must have either lost or gained electrons
  6. Ionization
    the breaking apart of a compound into ions when placed in solution
  7. cation
    an atom that has lost electrons

    when an atom loses electrons it becomes positively charged
  8. polyatomic ion
    radical
    a charged group of atoms that stay together and act as a single unit in chemical reactions
  9. ionic bond
    the transfer of electrons from one atom to another
  10. covalent bond
    the sharing of electrons between combining atoms
  11. single covalent bond
    when two electrons or one pair of electrons are being shared
  12. double covalent bond
    when four electrons or two pair of electrons are being shared
  13. triple covalent bond
    when six electrons or three pair of electrons are being shared
  14. Oxidation
    • 1. addition of oxygen
    • 2. an increase in oxidation number
    • 3. a loss of electrons
  15. slow oxidation
    the oxidation of a substance at a relatively low temperature
  16. rapid oxidation
    the oxidation of a substance at a relatively high temperature

    occurs when the kindling point of a substance is reached
  17. decay
    the slow oxidation of organic matter by aerobic bacteria
  18. kindling point
    the temperature at which a substance bursts into flame producing heat and light
  19. combustion
    rapid oxidation
  20. putrefaction
    the slow oxidation of organic matter by anaerobic bacteria
  21. reactants
    the substance or substances behind the arrow of the equation

    they are what are going through the reaction or "reacting"
  22. products
    found in front of the arrow

    "yielded or produced" by the reactants
  23. oxidation number
    the electrical charge formed when an atom loses or gains electrons
  24. diatomic molecules
    elements found in nature that form molecules with themselvs in order to be stable
  25. a "charged" ato is called
    an ion
  26. a charged group of atoms that stay together and act as a single unit in a chemical reaction is what?
    polyatomic ion or radical
  27. a group of symbols that represent all of the elements present in a compound is
    a formula
  28. an atom that has either a positive or a negative charge is called
    an ion
  29. an atom that has gained electrons is called
    an anion
  30. an atom that has lost electrons is
    a cation
  31. an atom that has lost or gained electrons is
    an ion
  32. an ion with a negative charge is
    an anion
  33. elements are made up of very small units of matter called
    atoms
  34. give the formula that tells us there are two combined atoms of copper
    Cu2
  35. how does an ion get its charge?
    the atom must have either lost or gained electrons
  36. how is the arrow in a chemical equation read?
    it indicates the direction of the reaction
  37. ions which are positively charged are
    cations
  38. know the names and formulas for the required polyatomic ions
    • Ammonium      NH4
    • Hydroxide       OH
    • Nitrate            NO3
    • Nitrite             NO2
    • Sulfate            SO4
    • Sulfite             SO3
    • Phosphate      PO4
    • Phosphite       PO3
  39. the combination of two or more atoms is
    a molecule
  40. the combination of two or more elements is
    a compound
  41. the electrical charge formed when an atom loses or gains electrons is the
    oxidation number
  42. what does each of the following mean:

    Cl
    Cl2
    2Cl
    2Cl2
    • Cl.....one atom of Chlorine
    • Cl2...one molecule of Chlorine
    • 2Cl...two seperate atoms of Chlorine
    • 2Cl2..two molecules of Chlorine
  43. what does the arrow do in a chemical equation?
    indicates the direction of the reaction
  44. what is the following called?

    Fe + CuSO4  --->  FeSO4 + Cu
    a chemical equation
  45. what is the term for those elemeents that combine two atoms together in order to be stable?
    diatomic
  46. what term applies to those elements which combine several atoms together inorder to be stable?
    polyatomic
  47. what was the example given for rapid oxidation?
    burning of wood
  48. what was the example given for slow oxidation?
    rusting of metal
  49. when four electrons are shared, it forms what?
    double covalent bond
  50. when ions are formed, they are attempting to take on the electronic configuration of what?
    • an inert gas
    • a noble gas
  51. when one pair of electrons are shared, it forms what?
    single covalent bond
  52. when six electrons are shared, it forms what?
    triple covalent bond
  53. when three pair of electrons are shared, it forms what?
    triple covalent bond
  54. when two electrons are shared, it forms what?
    single covalent bond
  55. when two pair of electrons are shared, it forms what?
    double covalent bond
  56. where does the oxidation number come from?
    the electrical charge formed when an atom loses or gains electrons
  57. list all the characterstics of hydrogen
    the first element to appear on the Periodic Table of Elements

    in its gaseous state at room temperature

    considered the smallest, lightest and simplest element known

    the most abundant element in the universe

    the word hydrogen means "water-former"

    when it is isolated from other substances, it exixts as a pair of hydrogen atoms linked together by means of the covalent bond

    pure molecular hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas
  58. what are compounds that contain oxygen called?
    oxides
  59. what are the most typical members of the halogen family?
    • Chlorine
    • Bromine
    • Flourine
    • Iodine
  60. what does the word hydrogen mean?
    "water-former"
  61. what is always found as a component of organic compounds such as amino acids, enzymes, and proteins?
    nitrogen
  62. what is chlorine most often used for?
    • bleaching agent
    • disinfectant
  63. what is formed when nitrogen based compounds combine with formaldehyde?
    protein coagulate
  64. what is the first element to appear on the Periodic Table?
    hydrogen
  65. what is the most abundant element is the univarse?
    hydrogen
  66. what is the most abundant element on earth?
    oxygen
  67. what is the most familiar halogen?
    chlorine
  68. what is the smallest, lightest, and simplest element known?
    hydrogen
  69. where are the halogens found on the periodic table?
    group 7
  70. Consider the following compound ....NaHCO3
          How many atoms of Na are there?
          How many atoms of H are there?
          How many atoms of C are there?
          How many atoms of O are there?
          How many molecules of the compound are there?
    • 1 atom of Na
    • 1 atom of H
    • 1 atom of C
    • 3 atoms of O
    • 1 molecule
  71. Consider the following compound ....2Na2CO3
          How many atoms of Na are there?
          How many atoms of C are there?
          How many atoms of O are there?
          How many molecules of the compound are there?
    • 4 atoms of Na
    • 2 atoms of C
    • 6 atoms of O
    • 2 molecule2

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