Psych 110 test 1.txt

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dcengr
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Psych 110 test 1.txt
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2012-09-30 19:11:55
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psych 110 test
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Psyvh 110 sbcc
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    • author "Dan"
    • fileName "Psych 110 test 1"
    • tags "Physio psychology"
    • description "Neurons, brain anatomy"
    • Physio psychology
    • Relationship between brain and behavior
  1. Galen discovered
    Nerves entered brain
  2. Descartes believed
    Behavior was innate, dualism
  3. Locke believed
    Tabula rasa
  4. Darwin characteristics have
    Functional signficance. Adaptive behaviors are not inherited but the brain that carries out these behaviors are.
  5. Gall believed
    Bumps on skull revealed mental functions, traits
  6. Consciousness
    Hard problem, only know our own. Easy problem, can alter it
  7. Blind sight
    Damage to visual cortex, relies on primative visual system
  8. Natural selection
    If characteristic permit it to reproduce more successfully, characteristics become more prevalent in population
  9. Evolution
    Gradual change in structure as a result of natural selection
  10. Human brain vs animal brain
    Larger relative to body size, more neocortex
  11. Enzymes
    Proteins that control rate of chemical reactions
  12. Mitocondria
    Organelle which produces ATP from glucose for the cell
  13. Action potential
    Abrupt depolarization of the membrane for a brief period of time that allows the neurons to cummunicate over long distances
  14. Membrane potential
    The electrical charge across a cell membrane or the difference in the electrical potential inside and outside of the cell.
  15. Resting potential
    The membrane potential of a neuron at rest, -70 mV
  16. Depolarization
    Towards zero voltage
  17. Hyperpolarization
    More negative voltage
  18. Threshold of excitation
    Voltage level which triggers action potential, -60 mV
  19. Diffusion
    Movement of molecules from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration
  20. Electrolytes
    Materials charged in water
  21. Ion
    Charged particle
  22. Cation
    Positive charge
  23. Anion
    Negative charge
  24. Sodium ion pump
    Constantly operating, pumps 3 Na+ ions out and 1 K+ ion in to reset neuron for action potential firing
  25. Rate law
    Intensity of firing rate
  26. Refractory period
    Period where action potential cannot fire. Absolute vs. relative (relative is in hyper polarization)
  27. Saltatory conduction
    Jumps from node of ranvier to node. Economy (less Na/K ion pumps), speed of signal
  28. Synapse
    Space between terminal button and neuron
  29. Synaptic vesticles
    Contains neurotransmitters. 1 vesticle released per AP via Ca++ions released from voltage dependent channel in terminal buttons
  30. Exocytosis
    Process by which the vesticles release their content outside of the membrane by fusing with the membrane.
  31. Ligand
    A chemical which binds to a binding site of a receptor. Binding forms higand-receptor complex which opens or closes ion channel
  32. Depolarization of soma
    Influx of Na+ or Ca++ ions
  33. Hyper polarization
    Efflux of K+ or influx or Cl- ions
  34. Post synaptic potentials
    • Excitatory - increases chance of fire
    • Inhibitory - decrease chance of fire
  35. Neural integration
    • Spatial summation - summing of PSP at different synapse
    • Temporal summaton - summing of PSP over time at same synapse
  36. LGC
    Ligand Gate ion Channel or ionotropic receptor
  37. GPCR
    • G Protein Coupled Receptor
    • Reacts with enzymes to create second messenger which can:
    • 1. Enter nucleus and affect gene transcription
    • 2. Open ion channels
    • 3. Change Ca++ levels
  38. PSP cleanup
    • Reuptake - neurotransmitters taken back into terminal buttons
    • Enzymic deactivation (Ach deactivated by AchE)
  39. Types of neurons
    Motor, sensory, inter neurons
  40. Somatic nerves
    Body senses
  41. Autonomic nerves
    Heart rate, breathing
  42. Afferent nerves
    Go inside CNS
  43. Efferent nerves
    Exit CNS
  44. Neuron membrane is made of
    Lipid bylayer
  45. Cytoplasm
    Jelly like substance that fills the cell
  46. Mitocondria
    Organelle which extracts energy from nutrients (ATP)
  47. Nucleus
    Contains chromosomes, long strands of DNA
  48. Cytoskeleton
    Proteins to give cell shape
  49. Enzymes
    • Controls chemical reaction
    • Metabolic - makes something
    • Catabolic - breaks down
  50. mRNA
    Copy of DNA
  51. Endoplasmic reticulum
    Parallel layers of membranethat serves as storage and channel for transporting things through cell
  52. Axoplasmic transport
    • Process by which substances are transported up down axon
    • Anterograde - away from soma
    • Retrograde - towards soma
  53. Glia
    • 50% volume of CNS
    • Provides physical and chemical buffers to isolate neurons
    • Surrounds neurons in place
    • Control supply of chemicals
    • Insulate neurons from each other
    • House keepers
  54. Astrocytes
    • Physical support
    • Clean up debris (phagocytosis)
    • Aid in extra cellular chemical environment
    • Provide nurishment
    • Blood brain barrier
    • Surround and isolate synapse
  55. Ogligodendrocytes
    • Provide support to axons
    • Provide myelin sheath
  56. Microglia
    • Phagocytosis - breaks down dead and dying neurons
    • Protects brain from microorganisms
    • Inflammatory response to brain damage
  57. Schwann
    • Myelin for PNS
    • Single cell for one axon
  58. Blood brain barrier
    • Semi permiable membrane produced by cells in the walls of the capillaries in the brain
    • Regulates composition of extracellular fluid
    • Selectively permeable
  59. Nuclei
    Collection of cell bodies in CNS
  60. Ganglia
    Collection of cell bodies in PNS
  61. Contralateral
    Opposite side
  62. Ipsilateral
    Same side
  63. Meninges
    • Protects the brain
    • Dura mater - thick tough flexible outer layer
    • Arachnoid membrane - spongy middle layer
    • Pia mater - thin inner layer
    • Sub arachnoid space - space between arachnoid membrane and pia mater filled with CSF (cerebral spinal fluid)
    • PNS only has dura mater and pia mater
  64. Ventricular system
    Cerebral Spinal Fluid flows from lateral into 3rd into cerebral aquaduct into 4th into sub arachnoid space then blood
  65. Frontal lobe
    • Motor functions
    • Inhibatory and planning
  66. Temporal lobe
    • Hearing
    • Limbic system
  67. Parietal lobe
    Sensory functons
  68. Occipital lobe
    Visual
  69. Lateralization
    Functions are located in just one cerebral hemisphere
  70. Contra lateralizaton
    Right brain controls left side, etc
  71. Choroid plexus
    Makes CSF from blood
  72. Corpus collosum
    Connects left and right hemispheres
  73. Left brain
    • Verbal
    • Logic, analytic
    • Interpretor
  74. Right brain
    • Spatial
    • Creativity, holistic
    • Recognize emotion, facial expression
    • Maintains accuracy
  75. Diencephalon
    Thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitory gland
  76. Thalamus
    • Relay to cortex
    • Two lobes
    • Many nuclei
  77. Hypothalamus
    • Controls autonomic and endocrine system
    • Fighting, fleeing, feeding, mating (4 F's)
  78. Pituatory gland
    • Anterior - controls hormones, endocrine system
    • Posterior - extension of hypothalamus
  79. Limbic system
    • Emotion, learning, memory
    • Hippocampus, amygdala, fornix, mammilary bodies, cingulate gyrus
  80. Hippocampus
    Memory, learning
  81. Amygdala
    Emotion, learning
  82. Fornix
    Fiber tract connects hippocampus with mammilary bodies
  83. Mammilary bodies
    Protrusion in base of brain
  84. Cingulate gyrus
    Region of limbic cortex
  85. Basil ganglia
    • Collection of nuclei involved in control of movement
    • Caudate
    • Putamin
    • Globus pallidus
    • Thalamus
  86. Pons
    • Reticular formation (sleep, arousal)
    • Relay nuclei cortex to cerebellum

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