the most commonly used correlation coefficient when both variables are measured on an interval or ration scale.
coefficient of determination (r2)
a measure of the proportion of the variance in one variable that is accounted for by another variable; calculated by squaring the correlation coefficient.
Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient
the correlation coefficient used when one (or more) of the variables is measured on an ordinal (ranking) scale.
point-biserial correlation coefficient
the correlation coefficient used when one of the variables is measured on a dichotomous nominal scale and the other is measured on an interval or ratio scale.
the correlation coefficient used when both measured variables are dichotomous an nominal.
a procedure that allows us to predict an individual's score on one variable based on knowing one or more other variables.
observational studies in which the researcher does not participate in the situation in which the research participants are involved utilize ___ observation.
the extent to which an experimental situation can be generalized to natural settings and behaviors is known as ___.
observational studies in which the participants are unaware that the researcher is observing their behavior utilize ___ observation.
____ are full narrative descriptions of a participant's behavior.
a ___ item is a type of item used on a tally sheet on which attributes that will not change are recorded.
___ involves a tendency for one group to be overrepresented in a study.
when participants give a response that they believe is deemed appropriate by society, they are giving a ____.
socially desirable response
using ___ involves generating a random sample in which each member of the population is equally likely to be chosen as part of the sample.
____ is a sampling technique designed to ensure that subgroups are fairly represented.
stratified random sampling
questions for which participants choose from a limited number of alternatives are known as __.
a numerical scale on which survey respondents indicate the direction and strength of their responses is a ___.
a question that sways a respondent to answer in a desired manner is a ___.
____ observation has greater ___ validity than ___ observation.
naturalistic; ecological; laboratory
which of the following is true?
naturalistic observation involve observing humans or animals behaving in their natural setting.
___ is (are) a greater concern when using ___ observation because the observation are made in a (an) ___ manner.
reactivity; undisguised; obtrusive.
naturalistic observation is to ___ as laboratory observation is to ____.
more flexibility;more control.
checklists are to ___ and narrative records are to ____.
less subjective; more subjective.
a tally sheet on which attributes that will not change are recorded utilizes __ items.
personal interview surveys have the concern of ___ but have the advantage of ___.
interviewer bias; question clarification
Rich is conducting a survey of student opinion of the dining hall at his university. Rich decided to conduct his survey by using every tenth name on the registrar's alphabetical list of all students at his school. The type of sampling technique that Rich is using is:
imagine that you wanted to assess student opinion of the dining all by surveying a subgroup of 100 students at your school. in this situation, the subgroup of students represents the ___, and all of the students at your school represent the ___.
a question including nonneutral or emotionally laden terms is a ___ question.
an open-ended question is to a ___ question as a closed-ended question is to a ___ question.
short answer; multiple choice
consider the following survey question: "most Americans consider a computer to be a necessity. Do you agree?" This is an example of a __ question.
a __ is a figure showing the relationship between two variables that graphically reprsents the relationship between the variables.
when an increase in one varible is related to a decrease in one variable is related to a decrease in the other variable and viceversa, we hae observed an inverse or ___ relationship.
when we assume that because we have observed a correlation between two variables, one variable must be causing changes in the other variable, we have made the errors of ___ and ___.
a variable that is truncated and does not vary is said to have a ____.
the ___ correlation coefficient is used when both variables are measured on a interval/ration scale.
the ___ correlation coefficient is used when one variable is measured on an interval/ratio scale an the other on a nominal scale.
to measure the proportion of varince accounted for in one of the variables by the other variable, we use the ____.
coefficient of determination
___ is a procedure that allows us to predict an individual's score on one variable based on knowing their score on a second variable.
the magnitude of a correlation coefficient is to ___ and the type of correlation is to ___.
absolute value; sign
strong correlation coefficiet is to weak correlation coefficient as ___ is to ___.
which of the following correlation coefficients represents the variables with the weakest degree of relationship?
a correlation coefficient of +1.00 is to ___ and a correlation coefficient of -1.00 is to ___.
perfect relationship; perfect relationship
if the points on a scatterplot are clustered in a pattern that extends from the upper left to the lower right, this would suggest that the two variables depicted are:
we would expect the correlation between height and weight to be ___, whereas we would expect the correlation between age in adults and hearing ability to be ___.
when we argue against a statistical trend based on one case we are using a:
if a relationship is curvilinear, we would expect the correlation coefficient to be:
close to 0.00
the ___ is the correlation coefficient that should be used when both variables are measured on a ordinal scale.
Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient
suppose that the correlation between age and hearing ability for adults is -.65. what proportion (or percent) of the variability in hearing ability is accounted for by the relationship with age?
drew is interested in assessing the degree of relationship between belonging to a greek organization and the numer of alcoholic drinks consumed per week. drew should use the ___ correlation coefficient to answer this.
regression analysis allows us to
predict an individual's score on one variable based on knowing the individual's sscore on another variable