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narrative records
full narrative descriptions of a participant's behavior.

checklist
a tally sheet on which the researcher records attributes of the participants and whether particular behaviors were observed.

static item
a type of item used on a checklist on which attributes that will not change are recorded.

action item
a type of item used on a checklist to note the presence or absence of behaviors.

qualitative research
a type of social research based on field observations that is analyzed without statitistics.

archival method
a descriptive research method that involves describing data that existed before the time of the study

interview
a methdo that typically involves asking questions in a facetoface manner, and it may be conducted anywhere.

focus group interview
a method that involves interviewing six to ten individuals at the same time.

field studies
a method that involves observing everyday activities as they happen in a natural setting.

action research
a method in which research is conducted by a group of people to identify a problem, attempt to resolve it, and then assess how successful their efforts were.

openended questions
questions for which participants formulate their own responses.

closedended questions
questions for which participants choose from a limited number of alternatives.

partially openended questions
closedended questions with an openended "other" option.

rating scale
a numerical scale on which survey respondents indicate the direction and strength of their response.

Likert rating scale
a type of numerical rating scale developed by Renis Likert in 1932.

loaded question
a question that includes nonneutral or emotionally laden terms.

leading question
a question that sways the respondent to answer in a desired manner.

doublebarreled question
a question that asks more than one thing.

response bias
the tendency to consistently give the same answer to almost all of the items on a survey.

demographic questions
questions that ask for basic information, such as age, gender, ethnicity, or income.

mail survey
a written survey that is sefadministered.

sampling bias
a tendency for one group to be overrepresented in a sample.

interviewer bias
the tendency for the person asking the questios to bias the participant's answers.

telephone survey
a survey in which the questions are read to participants over the telephone.

socially desirable response
a response that is given because a respondent believes it is deemed appropriate by society.

personal interview
a survey in which the questions are ased facetoface.

representative sample
a sample that is like the population.

probability sampling
a sampling technique in which each member of the population has a known probability of being selected to be part of the sample.

random selection
a method of generating a random sample in which each member of the population is equally likely to be chosen as part of the sample.

stratified random sampling
a sampling technique designed to ensure that subgroups or strata are fairly represented.

cluster sampling
a sampling technique in which clusters of participants that represent the population are used.

nonprobability sampling
a sampling techniue in which the individual members of the population do not have a equal or known likelihood of being selected to bbe a member of the sample.

convenience sampling
a sampling technique in which participants are obtained wherever they can be found and typically wherever is convenint for th researcher.

quota sampling
a sampling technique that involves ensuring that the sample is like the population on certain characteristics but uses convenience sampling to obtain the participants.

scatterplot
a figure that graphically represents the relationship between two variables.

type of relationships
 positive: variabe increase and decrease together.
 negative: as one variable increases, the other decreasesan inverse relationship.
 none: variables are unrelated and do not move together in any way.
 curvilinear: vvariabes increase together up to a point and then, as one continues to increase, the other decreases.

causality
the assumption that correlation indicates a causal relationship between the two variables.

directionality
the inference made with respect to the direction of a causal relationship between two variables.

thirdvariable problem
the problem of a correlation between two variables being dependent on another (third) variable.

restrictive range
a variable that is truncated and has limited variability

partial correlation
a correlational technique that involves measuring three variables and then statistically removing the effect of the third variable fro the correlation of the remaining two variables.

personwho argument
arguing that a wellestablished statistical trend is invalid because we know a "person who" went agaist the trend.

Pearson productmoment correlation coefficient (Pearson's r)
the most commonly used correlation coefficient when both variables are measured on an interval or ration scale.

coefficient of determination (r^{2})
a measure of the proportion of the variance in one variable that is accounted for by another variable; calculated by squaring the correlation coefficient.

Spearman's rankorder correlation coefficient
the correlation coefficient used when one (or more) of the variables is measured on an ordinal (ranking) scale.

pointbiserial correlation coefficient
the correlation coefficient used when one of the variables is measured on a dichotomous nominal scale and the other is measured on an interval or ratio scale.

phi coefficient
the correlation coefficient used when both measured variables are dichotomous an nominal.

regression analysis
a procedure that allows us to predict an individual's score on one variable based on knowing one or more other variables.

observational studies in which the researcher does not participate in the situation in which the research participants are involved utilize ___ observation.
nonparticipant

the extent to which an experimental situation can be generalized to natural settings and behaviors is known as ___.
ecological validity

observational studies in which the participants are unaware that the researcher is observing their behavior utilize ___ observation.
disguised

____ are full narrative descriptions of a participant's behavior.
narrative records

a ___ item is a type of item used on a tally sheet on which attributes that will not change are recorded.
static

___ involves a tendency for one group to be overrepresented in a study.
sampling bias

when participants give a response that they believe is deemed appropriate by society, they are giving a ____.
socially desirable response

using ___ involves generating a random sample in which each member of the population is equally likely to be chosen as part of the sample.
random selection

____ is a sampling technique designed to ensure that subgroups are fairly represented.
stratified random sampling

questions for which participants choose from a limited number of alternatives are known as __.
closedended questions

a numerical scale on which survey respondents indicate the direction and strength of their responses is a ___.
rating scale

a question that sways a respondent to answer in a desired manner is a ___.
leading question

____ observation has greater ___ validity than ___ observation.
naturalistic; ecological; laboratory

which of the following is true?
naturalistic observation involve observing humans or animals behaving in their natural setting.

___ is (are) a greater concern when using ___ observation because the observation are made in a (an) ___ manner.
reactivity; undisguised; obtrusive.

naturalistic observation is to ___ as laboratory observation is to ____.
more flexibility;more control.

checklists are to ___ and narrative records are to ____.
less subjective; more subjective.

a tally sheet on which attributes that will not change are recorded utilizes __ items.
static

personal interview surveys have the concern of ___ but have the advantage of ___.
interviewer bias; question clarification

Rich is conducting a survey of student opinion of the dining hall at his university. Rich decided to conduct his survey by using every tenth name on the registrar's alphabetical list of all students at his school. The type of sampling technique that Rich is using is:
random sampling

imagine that you wanted to assess student opinion of the dining all by surveying a subgroup of 100 students at your school. in this situation, the subgroup of students represents the ___, and all of the students at your school represent the ___.
sample; population

a question including nonneutral or emotionally laden terms is a ___ question.
loaded

an openended question is to a ___ question as a closedended question is to a ___ question.
short answer; multiple choice

consider the following survey question: "most Americans consider a computer to be a necessity. Do you agree?" This is an example of a __ question.
leading

a __ is a figure showing the relationship between two variables that graphically reprsents the relationship between the variables.
scatterplot

when an increase in one varible is related to a decrease in one variable is related to a decrease in the other variable and viceversa, we hae observed an inverse or ___ relationship.
negative

when we assume that because we have observed a correlation between two variables, one variable must be causing changes in the other variable, we have made the errors of ___ and ___.
causality; directionality.

a variable that is truncated and does not vary is said to have a ____.
restricted range

the ___ correlation coefficient is used when both variables are measured on a interval/ration scale.
Pearson productmoment

the ___ correlation coefficient is used when one variable is measured on an interval/ratio scale an the other on a nominal scale.
pointbiserial

to measure the proportion of varince accounted for in one of the variables by the other variable, we use the ____.
coefficient of determination

___ is a procedure that allows us to predict an individual's score on one variable based on knowing their score on a second variable.
regression analysis

the magnitude of a correlation coefficient is to ___ and the type of correlation is to ___.
absolute value; sign

strong correlation coefficiet is to weak correlation coefficient as ___ is to ___.
1.00; .10

which of the following correlation coefficients represents the variables with the weakest degree of relationship?
+.10

a correlation coefficient of +1.00 is to ___ and a correlation coefficient of 1.00 is to ___.
perfect relationship; perfect relationship

if the points on a scatterplot are clustered in a pattern that extends from the upper left to the lower right, this would suggest that the two variables depicted are:
negatively correlated

we would expect the correlation between height and weight to be ___, whereas we would expect the correlation between age in adults and hearing ability to be ___.
positive; negative

when we argue against a statistical trend based on one case we are using a:
personwho argument

if a relationship is curvilinear, we would expect the correlation coefficient to be:
close to 0.00

the ___ is the correlation coefficient that should be used when both variables are measured on a ordinal scale.
Spearman rankorder correlation coefficient

suppose that the correlation between age and hearing ability for adults is .65. what proportion (or percent) of the variability in hearing ability is accounted for by the relationship with age?
42%

drew is interested in assessing the degree of relationship between belonging to a greek organization and the numer of alcoholic drinks consumed per week. drew should use the ___ correlation coefficient to answer this.
ointbiserial

regression analysis allows us to
predict an individual's score on one variable based on knowing the individual's sscore on another variable

