A AND P TEST 2

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A AND P TEST 2
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2012-09-30 21:13:17
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TEST 2
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  1. These are specialized cellular compartment or structures, each performing its own job to maintain the life of the cell
    organelles
  2. the control center of cells
    nucleus
  3. This part of the cell carries the blue print of all protiens to be made.
    nucleus
  4. This is located between the plasma membrane and nucleus.
    cytoplasm
  5. what is the cytoplasm composed of
    cytosol, organelles, inclusions
  6. water with solutes(protein, salts, sugars, ect.
    cystol
  7. metabolic machinery of cell, each with specialized function, either membranous or nonmembranous
    organelles
  8. vary with cell type e.g. glycogen granules, pigments, lipid droplets, vacuoles, crystals
    inclusions
  9. double membrane structures with inner shelflike cristae
    mitochondria
  10. provide most of cells ATP via aerobic cellular respiration
    mitochondria
  11. contain their own DNA, RNA, ribosomes
    mitochondria
  12. This requires O2
    arobic cellular respiration
  13. This organells is simular to bateria
    mitochondria
  14. This organelle is capable of cell division called fision
    mitochondria
  15. These are granules that caontain protein and rRNA
    ribosomes
  16. this is the site of protein synthesis
    ribosomes
  17. these synthesize saluble proteins that function in cystol or other organelles
    free ribosomes
  18. this is attached to the rough er
    ribosomes
  19. these synthesize proteins to be incorporated into membranes, lysosomes or exported from the cell
    ribosomes
  20. interconnected tubes and parallel membranes enclosing cisterns
    er
  21. continouse with the outer nuclear membrane and has two varies
    er
  22. the external surface of this is studded with ribosomes
    rough er
  23. manufactures all secreted proteins
    rough er
  24. assembled protein more to this er and enclosed in vesicle, then goes to the gogi apparatus
    rough er
  25. network of tubes continous with rough er
    smooth er
  26. its enzmes(integral protiens) funciton in lipid metabolism, cholesteral and steriod based hormone synthesis, making lipids of lipoproteins
    smooth er
  27. absorption, synthesis, and transport of fats
    smooth er
  28. detox of drugs c some pesticides, carcinogenic chemicals
    smooth er
  29. converting glycogen to free flucose
    smooth er
  30. storage and release of calcium
    smooth er
  31. stacked and flattened membranous sacs
    golgi apparatus
  32. modifies, concentrates and packages proteins and lipids form rough er
    golgi apparatus
  33. transport vessels from er fuse with convex cis face, proteins modiffied, tagged form dilivery, sorted, packaged in vesicles
    golgi apparatus
  34. how many diff vesicles bud form concave trans face of golgi
    3
  35. this vesicle is release from golgi and export protiens by exocytosis
    secretory vesicle
  36. these vesicles contain digestive enzymes and remain in the cell
    lysosomes
  37. this vesicles from golgi are for plasma membran or organelles
    lipids and transmembrane protiens
  38. these vecicles digest ingested bacteria, viruses and toxins
    lysosomes
  39. this vesiclesdegrade nonfunctional organelles
    lysosomes
  40. these vesicles are part of the metobolic function to break down and release glycogen
    lysosomes
  41. these vesicles break down bone and release ca
    lysosomes
  42. the lysosomes work in a process to break down cells in injured or nonuseful tissue called
    autolysis
  43. this system all over function is to produce, degrade, store, and export molecules, and degrade potentially harmfull substances
    endomembrane system
  44. this system includes er, golgi, secretory vesicles, lysosomes, nuclear and plasma membrane
    endomembrane system
  45. this is located between plasma membrane and nucleus
    cytoplasm
  46. this is composed of cytosol, organelles, and inclusions
    cytoplasm
  47. this is the water with solutes-proteins, salts, sugars, ect. inside the cells membrane
    cytoplasm
  48. this is an elaborate series of rods throughout cyosol, proteins link rods to other cell structures
    cytoskeleton
  49. this includes microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules
    cytoskeleton
  50. the thinnest of cytoskeletoal element, dynamic strands of protein actin
    microfilaments
  51. dense web attached to cyoplasmic side of plasma membrane - terminal web, it gives strength, compression and resisitance
    microfilaments
  52. involved in cell motility, change in shape, endocytosis and exocytosis
    microfilaments
  53. these are tough, insoluble, ropelike protein fibers
    intermemdiate filaments
  54. composed of tetramer fibrils
    intermemdiate filaments
  55. resisit pulling forces on cell, attach to desmosomes, e.g.neurofilaments in nerve cells, keratin filaments in epithelial cells
    intermediate filaments
  56. largest of cytoskeletal elements, dynamic hollow tubes, most radiate from centrosome
    microtubules
  57. composed of protein subunits called tubulins, determin overall shape of cell and distribution of organesses, mitochondria, lysosomes, secretory vesicles attach to this and move through out cell by motor proteins
    microtubules
  58. protein complexes that funciton in motitly and powered by atp. e.g. movement of organelles and contraction
    motor proteins
  59. these organelles are near the cell center by the nucleus
    centrosomes and centrioles
  60. these organelles generates microtubules, organizes mitiotic spindle
    centrosome and centrioles
  61. these organeles form the basis of cilia and flagella
    centrosome and centrioles
  62. these are whip like extensions on the surface of certain cells
    cilia and flagella
  63. these extentions move substances across cell surfaces
    cilia
  64. this extension moves the entire cell
    flagella
  65. the flagella is on what cell
    sperm
  66. centrioles extentions form the base of what
    basal bodies
  67. this structues movments alternate between power stroke and recovery stroke
    cilia
  68. minute fingerlike extensions of plasma membrane
    microvilli
  69. this increases the surface area for absorption
    microvilli
  70. core of actin filaments for stiffening
    microvilli
  71. the largest organelle
    nucleus
  72. are mose cells multinucleated
    no they are uninucleate
  73. which cells are multinucleate
    skeletal muscle,bone destrucion cells, and some liver cells
  74. which cell are anucleate
    blood cells
  75. involved in rRNA synthesis and ribosome subunit assembly
    nucleoli
  76. associated with nucleolar organizer region contains DNA coding for rRNA
    nucleoli
  77. structural and functional unit of life
    cell
  78. organismal functions depend on individual and conllective cell function, biochemical activites of cells dictated by their shape or forms, and specific subcellular structures, continuity of life has cellular basis
    cell theory
  79. t or f all cells have some common structures and functions
    t
  80. what are the three basic parts of the human cell
    plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus
  81. this has a lipid bilayer and proteins in constantly changing fluid mosaic
    plasma membrane
  82. this plays a dynamic role in cellular activity and it separates the intracellular fluid from the extracellular fluid
    plasma membrane
  83. hydrophilic means
    likes water
  84. hydrophobic means
    doesnt like water
  85. this helps increase the membrane stability and is 20% of cell membrane
    cholesteral
  86. this is the part of the cell membrane that allows communitcation with the outside enviroment and is 1/2 the mass of the membrane
    membrane proteins
  87. some of these proteins are tethered to intracellular structures and some float free
    membran proteins
  88. this protein is fimly inserted into membran and most are transmembrane
    integral protein
  89. this protein has a hydrophobic and hydrophilic region. it can interact with lipid tails and water
    integral protein
  90. this proteins functions is to transport stuff through the cell membrane - channels and carriers, enzymes or receptors
    integral protein
  91. this proteins are loosly attached to integral proteins
    peripheral proteins
  92. these proteins include filaments on intracellular surface for membrane support, function as enzymes, motor proteins for shape chane during cell divsion and muscle contractio, cell to cell connections
    peripheral proteins
  93. what are the six function of the membrane proteins
    transport, receptors for signal transduction, attachment to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, enzymatic activity , intracellular joining, cell to cell recognition
  94. the sugar covering at the cell surface - lipids and prteins with attached carbohydrates (sugar groups)
    glycocalyx
  95. t or f every cell has a differnet patterens of sugars
    T
  96. specific biological markers for cell to cell recognition
    glycocalyx
  97. allows immune system to recognize self and non self
    glycocalyx
  98. cancerous cells chang it continuously
    glycocalyx
  99. what are the free cells
    blood, sperm
  100. what are the three ways cells are bound together
    tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions

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