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Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction is due to what hypersensitivity?
Type II H.S: Deposition of complement-mediated cell lysis due to ABO incompatibility.
An infant present with a swelling in the neck, head is always placed sideways. Dx and cause?
Congenital torticollis due to intrauterine malposition
Non-functional mutated proteins that are larger than the normal one is due to what type of mutation?
Splice site mutation
What can affect a study if the researcher's beliefs in the efficacy of treatment affect the outcome?
A capillary hemangioma that is superficial, bright-red plaques which regresses spontaneously by 5-8 y.o. Thin-walled blood vessels with narrow lumens filled with blood and separated by C.T.
Small, bright red papules (raised lesions) that have dilated capillaries and post-capillary venules in the papillary dermis and do not regress. Occurs in adulthood.
Soft, blue compressible masses with large, dilated vascular spaces. Children or adults.
Dilated lymphatic spaces lined by endothelium, most commonly occurs on the neck
Cystic hygromas - associated with Turners
Dilated cutaneous arterioles presenting as a central papule with blanching capillaries
Spider angiomas (liver dz, preggos, and OCP use)
Renal transplant, what two arteries are anastomosed?
Renal a. from donor kidney with external iliac a. from the transplanted kidney
Which E.coli factor causes neonatal meningtis? Causes UTIs? Causes septic shock?
- K1 capsule
- Lipid A of lipopolysaccharide: common to all gram negatives.
Pathogenesis of arthersclerotic plaques has what proliferative stimuli?
PDGF from platelets: migration and proliferation
DIC causes a decrease in what levels?
- 1. fibrinogen
- 2. factor V and VIII
TATA box binds what?
Transcription factors and RNA polymerase II
Reproductive manifestations in Turner's syndrome?
- 1. absent or streaked ovaries: little C.T. with no or minimal follicles
- 2. primary amenorrhea
- 3. Normal external genitalia (no ambigous genitalia)
Treatment of cyanide poisoning with nitroprusside?
Nitrates, and then thiosulfate: donates sulfur to promote conversion to thiocyanate.
Long-term use of corticosteroids causes what skin damage?
Atrophy/thinning of the dermis associated with loss of dermal collagen, drying, cracking, tightening of the skin, telangiectasias, and echymoses.
Tazobactam with piperacillin?
B-lactamase inhibitors: decreases the destruction of piperacillin
Penicillins and aminoglycosides?
Synergism: penicillins inhibit peptidoglycan cell wall synthesis, and allow aminoglycosides to act on 30S ribosomal subunit.
MoA of fibrinolytics? Adverse effect? C/I?
- Increases conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, increasing clot lysis.
- Reperfusion ischemia on arterial re-opening
- C/I = hemorhage or bleeding
MoA of primary biliary cirrhosis?
- Autoimmune destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts and cholestasis.
- Anti-mitochondrial antibodies.
Emphysema on lung x-ray?
Hyperlucency of the lungs and flattening of the diaphragm.