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the sum of all chemical reactins within a living organism
what are the two classes of chemical reaction
- release energy- catabolism
- require energy- anabolism
Describe/Define catabolism. Give example
Catabolism is the breakdown of complex organic compounds into simpler ones
are called catabolic or degradative reactions
hydrolytic reactions (use water in which chemical bonds are broken)
exergonic (produce more energy than the consume)
example: cells break down sugars into CO2 and H2O
Anabolism is the building of complex organic molecule from simpler ones
are called anabolic or biosynthetic reaction
involves dehydration synthesis reactions (release H20)
endergonic (consumes more energy than they produce)
example: formation of proteins from amino acids, nucleic acids from nucleotides, polysaccharides from simple sugars
Why is catabolic reaction important for anabolic reaction to occur?
Catabolic reactions provide the building blocks for anabolic reactions and furnish the energy needed to drive anabolic reactions.
How is energy-requiring and energy-releasing reaction made possible in the 2 types of chemical reactions?
through the molecule ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
ATP __(1)___ energy derived from __(2)___ reactions and __(3)___ it later to drive _(4)____ reactions and perform other cellular work.
- 1. stores
- 2. catabolic
- 3. releases
- 4. anabolic
ATP molecule consist of:
- 3 phosphate group
When the terminal phosphate group splits from ATP what is formed?
ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
The principal properties of a group of proteins involved in almost all biologically important chemical reaction is/are:
When does chemical reaction occur?
when chemical bonds are formed or broken
What must happen for reactions to take place?
atoms, ions, or molecules must collide
Define collision theory
explains how chemical reactions occur and how certain factors addect the rates of those reactions
What is the basis of collision theory?
all atoms, ions, and molecules are continuously moving and are thus continuously colliding with one another
What factors determine whether a collision will cause a chemical reaction?
the velocities of the colliding particles, their energy, and their specific chemical configurations
The collision energy required for a chemical reaction is its _____, which is the amount of energy needed to disrupt the stable electronic configuration of any speific molecule so that the electrons can be rearranged.
The _____ is the frequency of collisions containing sufficient energy to bring about a reaction- depends on the number of reactant molecules at or above the activatin energy level.
What is one way to increase the reaction rate of a substance?
raise its temperature
What are catalysts?
substances that can speed up a chemical reaction without being permanently altered themselves
In living cells, what serves as biological catalysts?
Identify the role of ATP as an intermediate between catabolism and anabolism.
catabolism is energy forming (ADP+P --> ATP) so in catabolism ATP is the product. anabolism: is energy storing (ATP --> ADP +P) in anabolism ATP starts the reaction. SO: ADP + P --> <-- ATP
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