Ch. 7 Anatomy and Physiology
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What is the supine position? (pg. 148)
the patient is lying face up on his back.
What is the Prone position? (pg. 148)
The patient is lying face down on his stomach.
What is Lateral recumbent(recovery) position? (pg. 148)
when the patient is lying on his left or right.
What is the fowler position? (pg. 148)
When the patient is lying on his back with the upper body elevated at 45 to 60 degrees.
What is the Semi-fowler position? (pg. 148)
The patient is lying on his back with the upper body elevated at an angle less than 45 degrees.
What is the trendelenburg postion? (pg. 148)
The patient is lying on his back with the legs elevated higher than the head and the body on an inclined position.
What ist he shock position? (pg. 149)
The patient is laying flat. However, the legs are elevated about 12 inches.
What is the sagittal plane? (pg. 149)
- A vertical plane that divides the body into a right and a left segment.
- also known as the mid sagittal plane.
What is the frontal or coronal plane? (pg. 149)
the frontal or coronal plane divides the body into front and back halves.
What is the transverse or horizontal plane? (pg. 149)
A horizontal plane that divides the body into upper and lower halves.
What is the midline? (pg. 150)
an imaginary line drawn down the middle of front of the patient.
What is the midaxillary line? (pg. 150)
A line down the side of the body going through the armpits.
what is a transverse line? (Pg. 150)
An imaginary line that goes through the person's waist. Seperating top from bottom.
What is anterior and posterior refering to? (pg. 151)
- Anterior is to the front
- Posterior is to the back
What is superior and inferior refering to? (pg. 151)
- Superior is towards the head or above the point of reference
- Inferior means towards the feet or below the point of reference
What is dorsal and venteral refering to? (pg. 151)
- Dorsal means toward the back or backbone
- Ventral means toward the front or belly
What is medial and lateral refering to? (pg. 151)
- Medial means toward the midline or center of the body
- Lateral refers to the left or right of the midline, or away from the midline of the body.
What is proximal and distal refering to? (pg. 151)
- Proximal means near the point of reference
- Distal is far from the piont of reference.
When saying "right" or "left" what is it always refering to? your left or the patient's left? (pg. 151)
What does midclavicular refer to? (pg. 151)
The center of each of the collarbones.
What does Midaxillary refer to? (pg. 152)
center of the arm pit.
What does plantar refer to? (pg. 152)
sole of the foot.
What does palmer refer to? (pg. 153)
the palm of your hand.
What do the Ligaments do? (pg. 153)
- connect bone to bone
- layers of muscles
What do tendons do? (pg. 153)
- Connect muscles to bones
- and various other connective tissues.
What makes upthe skull? (pg. 154)
What bones makes up the cranium? (pg. 154)
- 2 parietal
- 2 temporal
What bones make up the face? (pg. 156)
- Nasal bones
What are the 5 parts of the spinal column? (pg. 156)
- cervical (kneck)
- Thoracic (upper back)
- Lumbar spine (lower back)
- Sacral (back wall o f the pelvis)
- Coccyx (tailbone)
What is the thorax composed of? (pg. 156)
- thoracic spine
What is the superior portion of the sternum called? (pg. 156)
What is inferior portion of the sternum called? (pg. 156)
What bones make up the pelvis? (pg. 156)
- iliac crest
- sacrum and the coccyx
What does the term "lower extremeties" refer to? (pg. 157)
the legs from the hip to the toes.
What is the acetabulum? (pg. 157)
The hip joint
What is the patella? (pg. 157)
Where are the Tibia and the fibula? (pg. 157)
- in the shin area
- make sure you study which one is where.
What is the malleolus? (pg. 157)
the bulgy part of the ankles
what is the calcaneus? (pg. 157)
Where are the tarsals? (pg. 157)
where are the metatarsals? (pg. 157)
What are the phalanges? (pg. 157)
What is the shoulder girlde formed by? (pg. 157)
scapula and the clavicle
What is the scapula? (pg. 157)
Where is the humerus? (pg. 157)
- the bone under your bicep
- largest bone in your upper extremity
Where is the radius and the ulna? (pg. 157)
- make sure you know which one is which
What is the olecranon? (pg. 157)
the bony part of the elbow that is formed by the ulna
Where are the carpals? (pg. 157)
Where are the metacarpals? (pg. 157)
What does flexion mean? (pg. 157)
bending toward the body
What does extension mean? (pg. 157)
straightening away from the body
What does abduction ? (pg. 157)
moving away from the midline
what is adductio? (pg. 157)
moving toward the midline
what is circumduction? (pg. 157)
- being able to move in all directions
- i.e. the shoulder joint
What is pronation? (pg. 158)
turning the forearm so the palm is turned toward the back
what is supination? (pg. 158)
turning the forearm so the palm of the hand is turned toward the front
what is a smooth muscle? (pg. 159)
- basically a muscle that lines the tubes of your body
- i.e. the artories and veins.
What is oxygenation? (pg. 162)
- When oxygen moves from an area of high oxygen concentration to an area of low oxygen concentration.
- i.e. oxygen from capillary to cells
What is ventilation? (pg. 162)
The process in which air is moved in and out of the lungs.
What are the parts that make up the upper airway? (pg. 162)
- Nose and mouth
What are the parts that make up the lower airway? (pg. 162)
What are the 2 parts that make up the pharynx? (pg. 162)
What are the 2 parts that the pharynx divides into as it goes down your throat? (pg. 162)
What does the larynx hold? (pg. 162)
- the voice box
- adams apple (thyroid cartilage)
What is the epiglottis? (pg. 162)
A small leaf shaped flap that protects the larynx when you swallow.
What is the diaphragm? (pg. 164)
- A dome shaped muscle that is very important for breathing.
- it also seperates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
What are the intercostal muscles? (pg. 165)
- the muscles between the ribs.
- these muscles contract and increases the size of the thoracic cavity.
What is the phrenic nerve? Where is it located? (pg. 165)
- tells the diaphragm and intercostal muscles when to contract and relax
- located between vertebrae C3 and C5.
define adequate and inadequate breathing. (pg. 166)
- adequate breathing is when the patient has a "normal" rate and tidal volume.
- inadequate breathing is when the patient does not have a normal breathing rate and tidal volume
What is the circulatory system composed of? (pg. 168)
What are the four chambers of the heart? (pg. 168)
- The atrium makes up the top 2 chambers (atria singular form)
- The ventricles are the bottom 2 chambers.
What do arteries do? (pg. 168)
carries oxygen rich blood away from the heart to the body
What is the Aorta? (pg. 168)
the first artery that the heart pumps blood and from there the blood is distributed to the rest of the arteries
What does the aorta divide into? (pg. 168)
the iliac arteries which bring blood down each leg.
What are coronary arteries? (pg. 168)
arteries that supply the heat with blood to function.
What are the Carotid arteries? Where are they located ? (pg. 168)
- On each side of the kneck
- supplies the brain and the head with blood.
- (cardial pulse)
What are the femoral arteries? (pg. 168)
- The artery of the thigh
- it supplies the groin and leg with blood
Where are the dorsalis pedis arteris? (pg. 172)
in the food
Where are the posterior tibial artery? (pg. 172)
down the calf to your foot (back leg)
What are pulmonary arteries? (pg. 172)
Carries oxygen depleted blood to the lungs and back to the heart.
What is systolic blood pressure? (pg. 173)
the pressure against the walls of the arteries when your heart pumps
What is diastolic blood pressure? (pg. 173)
the pressure against the walls of the arteries when your heart is at rest.
What is edema? (pg. 173)
swelling in the tissues due to fluid leaking from the capillaries in the lungs.
what is hypoperfusion? (pg. 173)
The insufficient supply of oxygen and other nutrients to some of the body's cells and the inadequate elimination of the carbon dioxide and other wastes.
How is oxygen carried on the cell? (pg. 174)
- 97 percent on the hemoglobin
- 3 percent in the plasma
how is carbon dioxide carried on the cell? (pg. 174)
- 70 percent in a form called bicarbonite
- 23 percent on the hemoglobin
- 7 percent in the plasma
What makes up the central nervous system? (pg. 175)
- the brain
- spinal collumns
What are the 3 layers of protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord? (pg. 175)
What are the 3 parts of the brain? (pg. 175)
What does the cerebrum do? (pg. 175)
- the outermost portion of the brain.
- controls sensation, thought and associative memory.
- also manages motions that are under your control.
What does the cerebellum do? (pg. 175)
- Located in the posterior and inferier part of the cranium.
- it coordinates muscle activity
- and maintains balance through impulses from the eyes and ears
What is inside the brainstem? (pg. 175)
- the brainstem contains the respiratory center
- cardiac center
- and vasomotor
What is the peripheral nervous system? (pg. 177)
all the nerves not in the brain and spine.
What is the voluntary nervous system? (pg. 177)
lets you control your movements.
what is the autonomic nervous system? (pg. 177)
- influences the activities of the smooth muscles and glands.
- as well as digestion and sweating
What is the sympathetic nervous system? (pg. 177)
- is activated by stressors such as trauma, blood loss, fright.
- also known as the "fight-or-flight" response
what is the parasympathetic nervous system? (pg. 177)
returns the body processes to normal or depresses the body function.
What is the endocrine system? (pg. 178)
made up ot ductless glands and is in charge of the body's regulators
What does the thyroid gland do? where is it located? (pg. 178)
- located in the anterior kneck
- regulates metaboism, growth and development and the activity of the nervous system
What does the parathyroid gland do? where is it located? (pg. 178)
- behind the thyroid gland
- produces a hormone that is needed for the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus in the bones.
What do the adrenal glands do? where are they located? (pg. 179)
- sit atop the kidneys
- produces epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine
- postpones muscle fatige, increases the storage of sugar, controls kidney function, and regulates the metabolism of salt and water.
What do the gonads? and what do they do? (pg. 179)
- ovaries and testes
- produce the hormones that govern reproduction and sex characteristics.
Where are the islets of Langerhans? what do they do? (pg. 179)
- located in the pancreas
- produces insulin, which alows sugar to enter cells
- produce glucagon, a hormone that raises glucose level in blood
What do the pituitary glands do? where are they located? (pg. 179)
- the base of the brain. also called the "master gland"
- regulates the following:
- thyroid and parathyroid glands
- the pancreas
- the gonads
- metabolism of fatty acids and some basic protiends
- blood sugar reactions
- and urinary excretion
What are the effects of alpha 1? (pg. 181)
causes the vessels to constrict
What are the effects of alpha 2? (pg. 181)
regulates the effects of alpha 1
What are the effects of beta 1? (pg. 181)
- increase heart rate
- force of cardiac contraction
- and speeds up electrical impulses in the heart
what are the effects of beta 2? (pg. 181)
causes smooth muscles to dilate, especially in the bronchioles
What is the integumentary system? (pg. 181)
What are the 3 layers of the skin? (pg. 181)
- the epidermis
- subcutaneous layer
Where is the pancreas? what does it do? (pg. 182)
- inferior and posterior to the stomach
- secretes pancreatic juices that help in digestion of:
Where is the liver? what does it do? (pg. 182)
- Beneath the diaphragm in the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity.
- Produces bile, which helps digest fats
- also produces components for immune functions and blood clotting
- also produces plasma
What does the spleen do? where is it located? (pg. 182)
- located in the left upper quadrant.
- filters blood
- serves as a blood reserve.
Where is the gallbladder? what does it do? (pg. 182)
- located inthe bile duct leading from the liver
- acts as a reservoir for bile.
- When food enters the small intestines the gallbladder is squeezed and all the bile is emptied into the small intestine to help with digesting process.
What is the Renal/urinary system in charge of? (pg. 184)
filters and excretes wastes from the blood
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