Ch. 8 Pathophysiology Flashcards
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Define Aerobic Metabolsim (Pg. 200)
The breakdown of molecules to create energy in the presence of Oxygen.
Define Glycosys (Pg. 200)
When glucose crosses the cell membrane and is broken down into pyruvic acid.
Define Anaerobic Metabolism (Pg. 201)
The breakdown of molecules in cells without Oxygen.
What is the function of the Sodium/ Potassium Pump? (Pg. 201)
To pump sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell.
What causes the Sodium/Potassium pump to fail? (Pg. 202)
What happens when the Sodium/potassium pump fails? (pg. 202)
- Sodium is built up inside the cell causing water to enter the cell. (water is attracted to sodium)
- then the cell ruptures and dies.
Read pg 203 the section called "components necessary for Adequiate perfusion"
because that list is too long to type on one flashcard! LOL!
How much Oxygen is in the Ambient air at sea level?
21 Percent of ambient air at sea level is Oxygen.
What is FiO2? How is it displayed? (pg. 204)
- the fraction of Oxygen in air.
- In fraction form or decimal form. I.e. 21 percent of oxygen would be 0.21
What is the difference between FiO2 and FDO2? (pg. 204)
- FiO2 is Oxygen delivered to a patient that is breathing on their own.
- FDO2 is Oxygen delivered to a patient that is not breathing on their own.
What is one of the most basic and important aspects of any emerency care provided? (pg. 204)
is to establish and maintain a patient's airway.
What is one of the reasons you should keep the NasoPharynx, oropharynx and pharynx clear? (pg. 204)
blood, vomitus, or other substances could be aspirated into the lungs.
What are accessory muscles? (Pg. 206)
Accesory muscles are used to help breathing. This takes more energy.
What are the accessory muscles of inhalation? (pg. 207 chart)
- Sternocleidomastoid (lifts the sternum)
- scalene muscles (ribs 1 and 2)
- Pectoralis minor muscles (elevates ribs 3 to 5)
What are the accessory muscles of exhalation? (Pg. 207 chart)
- Internal Intercostal muscles
Define Compliance (pg. 207)
How much your chest wall and your lungs can stretch, distend, and expand
Define Airway resistance (pg. 207)
how easy it is for air to flow to your lungs. The harder it is the less oxygen you get.
What is pleural space? What happens if air begins to collect there? (Pg. 207-208)
- The space between the double lining of your lungs.
- It forces the lungs to collapse because the pleural space increases in size, which forces the lungs to get smaller.
About how much air does a person breathe a minute? (pg. 208)
6 Litters (6,000 mL)
What is minute volume? (pg. 208)
The amount of air moved in and out of the lungs in one minute
What is tidal volume? (pg. 208)
The amount(volume) of air breathed in with each breath.
What is Alveolar Ventilation? (pg. 208)
The amount of air moved in and out of the alveoli in one minute.
What is Dead air space? (pg. 208-209)
the areas in the respiratory tract where air collects during inhalation and this air does not get to the lungs to exchange oxygen to the blood
About how much air is lost in the dead air space? (pg. 209)
about 150 mL of 500 mL inhaled.
lack of oxygen to your tissues.
What are central chemoreceptors? Where are they located? (pg. 210)
- Receptors that stimulate an increase in rate and debth of respiration because of a high concentration of carbon dioxide in your body.
- Located near the respiration center in your brain. (medulla area)
What ar ethe peripheral Chemoreceptors? where are they located? (pg. 2010)
- Stimulate increase in rate and depth of respiration due to lack of oxygen in the arterial blood.
- located in the aortic arch and carotid bodies in the kneck.
What is hypoxic drive? (pg. 211)
When the peripheral chemorecepters become the primary recepters in stimulating rate and depth of breathing.
What are the 3 lung receptors? (pg. 211)
- Irritant Receptors
- Stretch Receptors
Where are the irritant receptors and what do they do? (pg. 211)
- Found in the airways
- sensative to irritating gases, aerosols, and particles. This recepter stimulates cough, brochonconstriction and increased ventilatory rate
Where are the Stretch receptors and what do they do? (pg. 211)
- found in the smooth muscle of the airways.
- decreases the rate and volume of breath to protect from lung overinflation.
Where are the j-receptors and what do they do? (pg. 211-212)
- around the capillaries surrounding the alveoli.
- When activated these recepters stimulate rapid, shallow ventilations.
Where and what are the respiratory centers? (pg. 212)
- In the brain.
- Dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
- ventral respiratory group (VRG)
- Apneustic Center
- Pneumotoxi center
What does the dorsal respiratory group (DRG) do? (pg. 212)
sends impulses to the external intercostal muscles and the diaphragm causeing them to contract which results in inhalation.
What does the ventral respiratory group (VRG) do? (pg. 212)
has neurons that only activate when an increase in ventilatory effort is necessary. (when using accessory muscles)
What does the apneustic center do? (pg. 212)
- Stimulates the DRG and VRG to intensify the inhalation.
- this center may prolong the inspiration by increasing the ventilation volume.
What is the Pneumotaxic center do? (pg. 212)
Tells the Apneustic center to stop inhalation before the lungs are too fu ll.
What does the ventilation/perfusion ratio describe? (pg. 212-213)
describes the relationship between the amount of air that reaches the alveoli and the amount of it goes through the capillaries to the cells.
Approximately how much Oxygen is delivered to the cells every minute? (oxygen not air) (pg. 215)
1,000 mL or 1 Liter
How is oxygen carried through the blood? (pg. 215)
- 97% in the hemoglobin
- 3% in the plasma
Describe the process of oxyhemoblobin. (pg. 216)
The process in which an oxygen molecule binds with the hemoglobin.
What is a deoxyhemoglobin? (pg. 216)
When a hemoglobin molecule does not have oxygen attatched to it.
How is Carbon Dioxide carried through the blood? (pg. 216)
- 7 % is dissolved into the plasma
- 23 % is attatched the hemoglobin
- 70 % is in the form of bicarbonate
How do gases naturally want to move? also known as boyle's law. (pg. 206)
from high concentration to low concentration.
What is the ratio of blood per pound? (pg. 217)
70mL of blood for every 2.2lb(1 Kilo)
What is blood composed of? (pg. 217)
- 45 % is made of cells and proteins
- 55 % plasma.
What is plasma composed of? (pg. 217)
- 91 % water
- 9 % plasma protiens which contain albumin, antibodies, and clotting factors.
What are the formed elements in the blood? (pg. 217)
- Red blood cells
- White Blood Cells
What is the Venous System responsible for? (pg. 217)
supplying the right side of the heart with blood.
What is hydrostatic pressure? (pg. 217-218)
the force inside the vessell or capillary beds by the contraction of the heart or blood pressure.
What is Plasma Oncotic Pressure? also known as colloid oncotic pressure. (pg. 218)
The pressure inside the vessels casued by large plasma proteins and albumin that attract water and other substances. This creates a "pull" inside the vessels.
Why is it important to maintain a balance between hydrostatic pressure and plasma oncotic pressure? (pg. 218)
So there is a balance between the fluids that should be inside the vessels to the fluids that should be outside the vessels.
Define Cardiac Output. (pg. 219)
amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle in one minute
What is the normal cardiac outpout for an adult at rest? (pg. 219)
What is the equation to determine cardiac output? (pg. 219)
cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volumes.
Define Stroke VOlume. (pg. 219)
the volume of blood ejected by the left ventricle with each contraction.
What is preload? how is it created? (pg. 219)
- preload is the pressure generated in the left ventricle at the end of diastole.
- it is created by the blood that is still in the left ventricle after the resting phase of the cardiac cycle.
What is afterload? (pg. 220)
is the resistance in the aorta that must be over come by the heart's contraction to eject the blood.
What is systematic Vascular Resistance? (pg. 220)
The pressure inside your vessels as it constricts to increase systematic pressure or relaxes to decrease systematic pressure.
What is Microcirculation? (pg. 222)
The flow of blood through the smallest blood vessels.
What are Baroreceptors? Where are they located? (pg. 224)
- Aortic arch and carotid sinuses.
- They detect the change in blood pressure and tells your brain to alter the heart function and vessel size to decrease blood pressure.
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