Exam I

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Author:
anime1003
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174639
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Exam I
Updated:
2012-10-01 14:59:27
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Lake Ecology
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chp17
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  1. epilimnion
    photic zone
  2. Bathymetric map
    levels and isobars
  3. isobars
    elevation contours of a lake
  4. max length
    longest point
  5. max width
    langest point perpedicular to max length
  6. Max depth
    Zmax
  7. Mean depth
    Zmean
  8. hypsographic curve
    depth verse area plot
  9. uses of hypsographic curve
    • volume esitmate
    • water reulation
    • zmean
  10. Gains/losses
    • Precip/evaporation
    • inlets/outlets
    • groundwater
  11. exorheric lake
    open basin
  12. endoheic lake
    closed basin
  13. Water residence time
    depends on V, climate, Zmean, ratio of catchment to lake area
  14. increased WRT
    increase chemical storage
  15. WRT decrease
    less nutrient loading
  16. Borden lakes
    water loss from other lakes (splitting)
  17. Rove area lakes
    Glacial scour lakes
  18. slate
    • emtamorphic rock formed from heating and pressurizing clay
    • more easily eroded than diabase
  19. Diabase
    very hard igneous rock
  20. Rove lakes have _____ with a steep _____ shore
    • bathymetry
    • south
  21. resivoirs have more non-native species due to...
    • increased visit by humans
    • increased stream connections
  22. Uses for mine pit lakes
    • industry- managed for aquaculture
    • acedemic- chronosequence for community assemblege
    • recreation/property developement
  23. geomorphology controls
    • volume
    • inputs/outputs
    • flushing rate
    • volume in contact with sediment
    • nutrients and gases
    • organisms and metabolism
  24. originating elements of every lake
    • environemtal force
    • terrain reshape into depression
    • water source
  25. ice scour
    excavation of a basin from glacial movement
  26. cirque
    ice scour lake on alpine slope
  27. moraine dam
    construction of a rim through pushing and deposition of glacially moved sediments
  28. kettle
    formed when a peice of ice break free from a glacier and gets left behind
  29. ice dam (lake Agassiz)
    proglacial type formed when glacial meltwater ponds in front of a glacier
  30. fault block (graben(
    large scale movemnt of earths crust creates cracking and depression
  31. revearse drainage
    tilting, sinking, or rising of the earths crust to affect drainage area
  32. crater
    eruption crates basin due to loss of debris
  33. oxbow
    sediment erosion and deposition on a river bank that isolates a merandering arm
  34. Max density of water
    3.94 C
  35. metalimnion
    • mixing layer
    • smallest slope
  36. annual overturn cycle
    • spring-even
    • summer- stratified
    • fall-even
    • winter- inverted stratification
  37. spring overturn
    • isothermal
    • oxygen and nutrients disturbed
    • temperatures trigger dormant egg release
  38. Spring to summer tansition
    • days lengthen
    • sun angles more direct
    • air temp rises
  39. Summer stratification
    • resists mixing
    • barrier to mixing
    • epilimnion thickens
    • hypolimnion temp = spring overturn
  40. summer to fall transition
    • days shorten
    • sun is less direct
    • air temp falls
  41. fall overturn
    • wind mixes water column
    • isotherm
    • distributes nutrients and oxygen
  42. winter
    inverse stratification
  43. cold monomitic
    • 1 circulation every year (summer)
    • small arctic lakes
  44. warm monomitic
    • stratified only in summer, mixes rest of the year
    • lake superior
  45. dimitctic
    • two distincnt circulation events per year
    • most common lakes
  46. polymictic
    many circulation events per year\shallow and wind exposed
  47. meromictic
    • incomplete mixing
    • deepwater salt concentration
    • increase in density
  48. mixolimnion
    mixes annulaly
  49. monimolimnion
    doesn't mix
  50. Qt
    total heat flux
  51. Qr
    radiation
  52. Qs
    conduction
  53. Qa
    inlets and outlets
  54. Ql
    evaporation and melting
  55. sediments can provide...
    winter heat
  56. Joules
    • m-2 sec-1
    • 1 joule = 0.24 calories.
  57. einstiens
    • m-2 sec-1
    • where 1 Einstein = 1 mole of photons.
  58. Wavelength/frequency
    determines color and energy
  59. Frequency to energy conversion
    by Planck’s constant (Energy = h * frequency)
  60. surface reflection
    strongest amount of light
  61. underwater scattering
    water scatters according to (1/wavelength)^4
  62. Extinction Coefficient
    k (measure of light attenuated).
  63. K is _____ related to light pennetration
    inversely
  64. Photic zone (Zphotic)
    depth of 1% surface light
  65. Estimate equation for photic zone
    • use k = (ln I0 – ln Iz) / z
    • set I0 = 100% and Iz = 1 %, then
    • Zphotic = ln 100/k
  66. longer wave length (red)
    less pennetration
  67. Critical mixing depth
    Mixing depth where phytoplankton depth-integrated photosynthesis = depth-integrated respiration.
  68. 3 factors for determining solubility
    • pressure
    • salinity
    • temperature
  69. high salinity
    low solubility
  70. high pressure
    low solubility
  71. high temperature
    low solubility
  72. gains and losses
    • atmospheric diffusion
    • photosynthesis
    • metabolism of bacterium
  73. Orthograde
    increasing oxygen with depth
  74. clinograde
    decreasing oxygen with depth
  75. positive heterograde
    increase in oxygen at mixing layer
  76. negative heterograde
    decrease in oxygen at mixing layer
  77. adaptations of fat head
    • small size
    • reduced movement
    • increase gill to vein factor
    • gulp air bubbles
  78. surface area of a lake
    area of circle (pi rsquared)
  79. shorline length
    • circumfrence of circle
    • 2pi r
  80. volume
    • (area of shallow + area of deeper)/2 * depth between planes
    • then sum all levels
  81. hypsographic curve
    Depth vs Area
  82. Zmean
    V/A
  83. littoral zone percent
    • less than 5meters
    • (surface area - area of 5m plane)/ surface area
  84. Chl-a (concentration of chloriphyl)
    248.313*Zmean(m)6^-1.552
  85. water residence time
    volume/losses

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