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- MEGA: 1,000,000(MILLION)
- KILO:1,000( THOUSAND)
- HECTO: 100 ( HUNDRED)
- DECKA: 10 (TEN)
- deci: 1/10 (tenth)
- centi:1/100 ( hundredth )
- milli: 1/1,000 (thousandth)
- micron: 1/1,000,000 (millionth)
What is an atom?
smallest unit of life
More than one atom bond together
Complex molecules assembled into compartments
collection of cells performing the same function.
Major types of Tissue? function of each?
- (1) Connective, Epithelical, muscle and Nervous
- C= bind and support other tissues
- E= protective barries that protects the body from microorganism, injury and fluid loss.
- M= produce force and cause motion
- N=responsible for sending stimuli and transmit signals to and from different parts of an organism
collection of tissue for a common function
collecton of organs with a common function
organs systems funtioning together to form the organism
a group of organism living in the same place
ex: a flock of geese on a pond
a population capable of interbreeding ex: dogs
consist of many population living together in the same habitat.
ex: geese shre the pond with ducks, fish, grasses
a biological community
ex: desert ecosystem
is the set of chemical reaction that happen in living organism to maintain life.
- ex: imagine candle
- Big fire - high metabolism
- Small fire- low metabolism
the ability to regulate the internal environment and remain stable
Interaction with the environment
ecosystem- a community of various plants and animals interacting in their habitat
FLOW OF ENERGY- everything gets their energy from the sun
Autotroph: organism that is able to form nutriotional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as CO2 (Self-feeder)
Heterotroph: organism that cannot make organic molecules from iorganic molecules from inorganic ones. (other-feeders)
Decomponser: organism that breaks down dead o decaying organism
It's the process whereby plants, algae and certain bacteria transform light energy into chemical energy, using CO2 and H2O as starting materials.
Formula: CO2 + H2O -----> C6H12O6 + O2
Harvest food energy to produce ATP. (it release energy from sugar)
Formula: C6H12O6 + O2 ----> CO2 + H2O + E(nergy)
where Traits are found.
- DNA: biological macromolecule that encodes genetic info.
- Gene: a section of dna that encodes the structure of a protein.
Cell- Nucleus -Chromosomes - DNA- Gene
unity and diversity of life.
classification of living organism.
6 kingdom of LIFE.
- UNITY: concept that means that "all life came from one organism" so that all life is similar but diff.
- DIVERSITY:we came from the same organism but from a different brnch of tree life. (diff habitat, food, envir..)
- Protozoans, Fungi, Bacteria, Plant, Animal
- Archaea- prokaryote
- Bacteria- prokaryote
- Protist- Eukaryote
- Fungi- Eukaryote
- Plants- Eukaryote
- Animals- Eukaryote
atoms with the same atomic number but differ in number of neutrons
- C12: stable isotope; nuclei remain intact forever
- C14: radioactive isotope; nucleus decays, giving off particles and energy
The number of protons
The number of protons and neutrons
it makes up the nucleus; positive charge
has neutral charge
has a negative charge. surronds the nucleus
- 1sr orbit: 2 e-
- 2nd orbit: 8 e-
= electrons needed to fill outer orbit
- at #: 1
- MA: 1
- P: 1
- N: 0
- E: 1
- 1st: 1
- 2nd: 0
- VAL: 1
- at #: 8
- MA: 16
- P: 8
- N: 8
- E: 8
- 1st: 2
- 2nd: 6
- VAL: 2
- at #: 7
- MA: 14
- P: 7
- N: 7
- E: 7
- 1st: 2
- 2nd: 5
- at #: 6
- MA: 12
- P: 6
- N: 6
- E: 6
- 1st: 2
- 2nd: 4
- VAL: 4
*Acids: greater the H+ ions, stronger the acid
*Base(alkaline): greater the amount OH- ions, stronger the base
Hydrogen ION (H+)
formed by removal of the electron from atomic hydrogen and found in all aqueous solution of acids
Hydroxide ION (OH-)
formed by a gain of electron. Oxygen and hydrogen
protons are not equal to electrons
Dissociation or ionization
the breaking of water molecule
H2o ----> H+ + OH-
formed when clorine atom gain an electron (Cl-
formed when Sodium atom loses 1 electron (Na+
the opposite charges of the atoms attract each other (ex; NaCl)
caused by sharing electrons
Polar covalent bonds
formed by 2 kinds of method
- essential oil: vanila
DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS (condensation)
chemical reaction that REMOVES a molecule of water
-water comes out
breaking of molecules. cell break bonds btw monomers by ADDING water to them.
-water comes in
monomers: single molecule
polymers: more than 1 molecule
- molecules that dissolve or interact with water
- (salt and water)
- fats that float and dont dissolve in water
- (oil and water)
molecules with the same formula but different chemical arrangements
- single sugar
- cannot b broken down by hydrolysis into smaller sugar
- glucose, Fructose and Galactose
- double sugar
- form from 2 monosaccharides through a dehydration reaction
- Lactose(milk), Maltose( barley grain), and Sucrose(cane)
- known(starch or carbohydrate)
- very long chain of sugar
- Starch, Glycogen, and Cellulose
- S- found in plants; provides energy, cell parts and reserve energy
- G- animal starch; stored in the liver.
- C- plant cells walls. cannot be broken by animals, known as fiber.(cotton, paper)
FATS (animal) - LIPIDS (plant)
- Fats- solid, lard and grease
- Lipids- liquid, oil and olive, peanut
- made of: Glycerol + 3 fatty acids
- knows as tryglycerides
a chain of carbon with an acid in the end
- C3H803 - GLYCEROL
- F.A. chains of carbon w oxygen and hydrogen
- 3 kinds of lipids:
- 1.saturated- have single bonds from 1C to the next, generally animal fat. (bad)
- 2. monounsaturated fat- have 1 double bonds btw Carbon( found oild, avocado
- 3. Polyunsaturated fat- have more than one double bonds btw carbon( found in fish, nuts) (OMEGA-3
- provides back-up energy
- provides insulation
- protects organs
- insulates nerve fiber
- cell membranes
addition of hydrogen to the unsaturated bonds results in suturated bonds, effectively increasin the meltin point of the oil and thus hardening it.
knows as trans-fat ( fats that go from unsaturated to saturate by hydrogenation)
special cells that store fat cells
- -ringed shape steroids
- produced by liver to make: hormones, vitamin D, bil salts, cell membrane
HDL - LDL
- HDL: is a lipoprotein that carries lipids from the liver that are useful to the body(GOOD
- LDL:is a lipotrotein that carries dietary lipds and sometimes puts them in arteries (BAD
class of lipids and are a major component of all cell membranes as they can form lipid bilayers
=phosphorus + two fatty acids
bile breaks up the fat droplets(emulsify) so it can be digested
Bile: a juice produced by the liver, stored in the gall bladder, andsecreted through a duct into the duodenum
- organic compunds that conines to form protein. it has 20 kinds.
- R group- the rest of AA
2 amino acids combined
protein chemical that change the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed in the process.
- most common protein. found in animals, skin, bone, bood.
- strenghts blood vessels.
are red blood cells protein wih 5-- amino Acids. carries oxygen from the lngs to the body tissues and take CO2 from the tssue to the lungs.
the building blocks of nucleic acids. it contains 3 parts: Sugar, Phosphate, and nitrogen bonds
- Messeger RNA
- Transfer RNA
- form a single strand
- distict base: Uranil `
Adenine, Guanine, Thymine and Cytosine.
its the body's energy compund;