Clinical Patho Q1

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prestoncas
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174711
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Clinical Patho Q1
Updated:
2012-10-01 20:16:15
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HSC285
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Baker College Flint Clinical Patho Quiz 1
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  1. Acute vs. Chronic
    • - Acute has sudden onset and short symptom life.
    • - Chronic occurs when injury, repair and healing occur simultaneously and one cannot overtake another
  2. Anatomical vs. Clinical pathology
    • - Anatomical refers to something wrong strucurally.
    • - Clinical refers to something being wrong functionally.
  3. What are the 2 types of defense mehanisms in the immune system?
    • - Innate/Nonspecific will attack anything
    • - Adaptive/specific - will attack only one specific item
  4. Most common cause of cell injury
    hypoxia - lack of oxygen
  5. Obstacles for normal repair
    • - Infection
    • - Poor nutrition
    • - Steroid drug use
    • - Poor blood supply
    • - Foreign bodies
    • - Mechanical Factors
  6. What is repair?
    The restoration of the body to normal
  7. Four cardinal signs of inflammation
    • - redness (rubor)
    • - pain (dolor)
    • - swelling (tumor)
    • - heat (calor)
  8. Diaphysis is made up of?
    compact bone
  9. Epiphysis is made up of?
    Spongy bone
  10. Epiphyseal Plate vs Epiphyseal Line
    • - The plate is where the growth takes place, if an injury occurs here, growth could be impacted.
    • - The line is formed after the growth is final.
  11. Closed vs. Open fractures
    • - Closed fracture the break does not penetrate the skin
    • - Open fracture the break penetrates the skin
  12. What is reduction?
    setting the bone .... you are REDUCING the amount of space within the bone fracture
  13. What is immobilization?
    casting
  14. Comminuted Fracture
    Bone breaks into many fragments
  15. Compression fracture
    The b
  16. Compression Fracture
    The bone is crushed
  17. Depressed Fracture
    Broken bone portion is pressed inward
  18. Impacted Fracture
    Broken bone ends are forced into each other
  19. Spiral Fracture
    Ragged break resulting from exessive twisting force on a bone
  20. Greenstick fracture
    Bone does not break completely.
  21. What are the steps of healing
    • 1) hematoma forms
    • 2) Fibrocartilage callus forms
    • 3) Bony callus forms
    • 4) Bone remodeling
  22. Complications of a fracture
    • 1) muscle spasms
    • 2) infection
    • 3) ischemia
    • 4) comaprtment syndrome
    • 5) Fat emboli
    • 6) Nonunion
    • 7) Malunion
    • 8) Nerve Damage
  23. What is the treatment for osteoporosis?
    • - Proper Nutrition (Calcium and Vitamin D)
    • - Exercise (Improves bone health & Increases surrounding muscular stability)
    • - Safety Issues to Prevent Falls
    • - Therapeutic Medication
  24. What are the contraindications for osteoporosis?
    • - AVOID FLEXION EXERCISES
    • - Be careful of shearing or rotational activities
  25. What are the causes of cellular injury?
    • - Hypoxia––most common
    • - Direct physical action
    • - Ionizing radiation
    • - Toxic molecular injury
    • - Microbes
    • - Inflammatory and immune reactions
    • - Nutritional imbalance
    • - Genetic defects
    • - Aging
  26. What is gout?
    • - A painful condition that occurs when the bodily waste product uric acid is deposited as needle-like crystals in the joints and/or soft tissues.
    • - In the joints, these uric acid crystals cause inflammatory arthritis, which in turn leads to intermittent swelling, redness, heat,
    • pain, and stiffness in the joints.
  27. What is the PT intervention for osteoporosis?
    • - The importance of low impact
    • - Teach fall prevention
    • - Strengthen extensors
    • - Postural stability
  28. What are the 3 most common sites of a non-union fracture?
    • - Scaphoid
    • - Talus
    • - 5th metatarsal
  29. What are the methods of diagnosing OA?
    • *No single test can diagnose osteoarthritis*
    • - Clinical history
    • - Physical examination
    • - X rays
    • - MRI
    • - Blood tests to rule out other causes of symptoms
    • - Joint aspiration
  30. What are the 4 goals of Osteoarthritis treatment?
    • 1) Control Pain
    • 2) Improve Joint Function
    • 3) Maintain Normal Body Weight
    • 4) Achieve a healthy lifestyle
  31. What is the treatment for Osteoarthritis?
    • - exercise
    • - weight control
    • - rest and relief from stress on joints
    • - non-drug pain relief
    • - medication for pain relief
    • - surgery
    • - aomplemetary & alternative therapies
  32. What are some obstacles for normal bone repair?
    • - Infection
    • - Poor nutrition
    • - Steroid drug use
    • - Poor blood supply
    • - Foreign bodies
    • - Mechanical Factors
  33. What risk factors are associated with Osteoporosis?
    • Not modifiable
    • - Gender
    • - Age
    • - Body Style
    • - Ethnicity
    • - Family History
    • Modifiable
    • - Sex Horomone Levels
    • - Anorexia
    • - Calcium & Vitamin D intake
    • - Medication Use
    • - Lifestyle
    • - Smoking
    • - Drinking
  34. Acute Fracture
    (S/S, Precautions & PT mgmt)
    • Signs & Symptoms
    • - deformity
    • - pain
    • - immediate edema
    • Precautions
    • - WB
    • - ill fitting stabilization
    • PT mgmt
    • - help pt adjust to stabalizing device
    • - mobility activities
    • - education on WB status & healing
  35. Healed fractures
    (S/S, Precautions & PT mgmt)
    • Signs and Symptoms
    • - Muscle weakness
    • - Atrophy
    • - Loss of ROM
    • - Edema
    • Precautions
    • - WB Status
    • - Physical Restrictions: reps, sets, weight
    • - Neural Function – watch for compromise
    • PT Management
    • - Mobility
    • - Strength and ROM
    • - Muscle extensibility
    • - Return to normal ADL’s
    • - “LET THE PAIN BE YOUR GUIDE”
  36. What is the major cause of osteoarthritis?
    • - Wear & Tear
    • - Can manifest from autoimmune diseases
    • - Unstable joints affected by OA tend to be injury prone

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