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What are the 3 core areas of public health?
- Assessment: CDC, inspections, CPS, gathering data about a population in order to develope policy/regulations. EPA.
- Policy developement: Regulartion, laws, oversight.
- Assurance: protecting public, assuring competence in those who provide protection for the public.
Know Florence Nightengale and
Wald: Henry Street Settlement House (1893)--5,000 families, 48,000 home visits by 1905
Aerican Red Cross
- Global institution, not a US original. Clara Barton brought it home.
- Provided direct care in-home.
When did nuring care get desegregated?
- Before then, see Jessie Sleet, 1900 and National Health Circle for Colord People, 1919
What drive public health nursing?
Perception is everything.
- Disease/threats to life and quality of life
Address areas of:
- infectious disease
- Heart disease
- Chronic illnesses
- health promotion/disease management/disease prevention
What is the difference between health promotion and prevention?
- Prevention: Active steps taken to prevent a specific condition.
- --Primary: before the disease exists
- --secondary: early detection of possible disease. Includes education on HOW to detect those SnSs. Also, screening.
- ----Screening only provides a non-specific indicator of health. Cannot rule in or out any specific disease process.
- --Tertiary: Goals are oriented toward preventing sequelae.
Promotion: A wholistic approach to health
Know the difference between community based vs community oriented
Philosophy: CO, people should be in charge of their own health and we exist to help them make those decision. CB, we are experts and exist to provide the care you need when you need it.
Goals: CO, preseve, protect and maintain health. CB, manage acute and chronic illness.
Interaction patterns: CO, 1-1, groups, whole communities/populations, may be organized, partnerships. CB, 1-1 almost exclusively in a provider/patient relationship.
Activities: CO, community/group based. CB, patient education on an interdisciplinary manner.
Know the WHO definitions.
Know the Health promotion/disease prevention health services pyramid.
- Population Based Health Care Services: Focuses on populations within communities
- Clinical Preventive Services
- Primary Health Care: Meet basic needs of a community
- Secondary Health Care: Detect and treat disease
- Tertiary Health Care: Limit progression of a disease
Know legit sources for data regarding community statistics.
KNow the difference between primary healthcare and primary care.
- PHC: fully participatory. as such, involves the community in all aspects of health and subsequent action. Primary emphasis is on PREVENTION.
- PC: focuses on the individual. Primary emphasis is on CURE.
What is Public Health?
- Healthy people in a healthy community
- Healthy people cannot exist within an unhealthy community.
Roles of public health nurse
- Education: Populations and communities
- Community partnerships
Public health nurse competencies
- Cultural competency
- Commuity dimensions of practice skills: People, fnxn, location.
- Basic public health science skills, ie epidemiology.
- Financial Planning and management
- PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE = GENERALIST
- In addition to that, you can be a PHN manager, cns/consulant, etc.
What are some examples of PHN Role activities?
- Breast cancer screening
- assure access to services and care
- day care facilities to ensure national standards
- immunizations in communities
- Case finding
- providing emergency care
What are some nursing theories applied to community health?
- Nola Pender: Health promotion model.
- --cetain factors must be present to change behavior, ie "belief."
- Betty Neuman: Systems Model, ie all systems work towards equilibrium.
- --levels of preventions: all interaction with stressors/client reactions/interactions between client and resources: physical, emotional, lines of defense to reach adaptation (reconstruction) to environment and levels of health.
- Orem: self-care deficit
- Imogen King: Theory of goal attainment
- --human beings interacting with environment state of health
- --defined health as: ability to function in a social role.
Have a look on the public health intervention wheel.
What are some sources of information about people as they relate to community health?
- Census data
- Churches, senior centers
- Civic groups
- Chamber of Commerce
- Key Informants
What are some sources of data for locations as they relate to community health?
- Online Governmental sources (CDC)
- Local newspapers
- Local Housing Office
What are some sources of data for functions of a community as they relate to community health?
- Online Governmental sources (CDC)
- Business and labor
- Police Station
- Recreation Centers
- United Way
How do community needs relate to Maslow?