Introduction to Comparative Politics

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Author:
Kimmiey
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174834
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Introduction to Comparative Politics
Updated:
2012-10-01 20:34:01
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AP CoGo
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Unit 1
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  1. Government
    is a reference to the leadership of an institutions that make policy decisions for the country
  2. Empirical data method
    Based on factual statemtns and statistics
  3. Normative Method
    value judgement
  4. Three world approach
    • 1st world: US and allies
    • 2nd World: Soviet Union and allies
    • 3rd World: Nations that did not fit in the first two
  5. Today comparisons are based on...
    Democracy v. Authoritarianism and Communism v. Capitalism
  6. Civil Society
    the way that citizens organize and define themselves and their interests
  7. "Advanced Democracies"
    well established democratic governments and a high level of economic development
  8. Communist and Post-Communist Countries
    Countries that have sought to create a sustem that limits individual freedoms in order to divide wealth more equally
  9. Less developed and Newly Industrializing Countries
    Traditionally "Third World"
  10. Power
    is territorially organized into states that control what happen within thier borders
  11. Nation
    a group of people that are bound together by a common political identity
  12. Regime
    the rules that a state sets and follows in exerting its power are referred to collectively as a regime.
  13. Parliamentary
    Where citizens vote for legislative representatives which in turn select the leaders of the exectutive branch
  14. Presidential
    where citizens vote for legislative representative as well as executive branch leaders. The 2 branches funtion with seperation of powers.
  15. Semi - Presidential systems: 
    Prime minister coexists with a president
  16. Authoritarian Regimes
    decisions are made by political elites with out much input from citizens
  17. Corporatism
    An arrangement in which government officials interact with people/ groups outside the government before they set policy.
  18. Totaltarianism
    • Seek to control and transform all aspects of the political and economic systems of society.
    • Generally have a strong ideological goal than many authoritarian systems lack.
  19. Basic principle of democracy 
    pluralism which is an important way citizens express their need to the government
  20. Legitimacy
    the right to rule, as determined by their own citizens.
  21. Traditional Legitimacy
    • Traditiondetermines who rules and how
    • Often involves important myths / legends
    • Monarchies
  22. Charismatic Legitimacy
    • baded on the dynamic personality of an indicidual leader or small group
    • Fotoriously short lived because it usually does not survive it's founder
  23. Ration-Legal Legitmacy
    • Based on a system of well-established laws and procedures.
    • 2 forms 
    • Common law (Tradition, past practices) GB, US. ect
    • Code Law (written rules of law divided into commercial, civil, and criminal codes.) China, Mexico, Russia
  24. Factors that encourage legitimacy
    • Economic well-being
    • Historical Tradition
    • Charismatic Leadership
    • Nationalim/ shared political culture
    • satisfaction with the governments performance /  responcivness
  25. Political Culture
    refers to the callection of political beliefs, values, practices, and institutions that government is based on
  26. Consensual Political Culture
    • accepts legitimacy of regime and solutions to major problems
    • May disagree on some political preocesses and policies, they tend to generally to agree on;
    • How devisions are made
    • what issues should be addressed
    • how problems should be solved
  27. Conflictual Political Culture
    • Citizens are sharply divided on legitimacy of the regime and solutions to major problems
    • Political subcultures can erupt
  28. Reform
    • doesn't advocate the overthrow of basic institutions
    • Reformers want to change some of the methods that political and economic leaders use to reach goals that society generally accepts
  29. Revolution
    Involves either a major revision or an over throw of existing institutions
  30. Coup d'etat
    • "Blows to the state" - replace the leadership of a country with new leaders
    • Ovvurs in a country where government institutions are weak and leaders have taken control by force
  31. Radicalism
    belief that rapid dramtic changes need to be made in the existing society, often influencing the political system
  32. Liberalism
    • supports reform and gradual change rather than revolution
    • Fenereally beleive that systems are not broken but do not believe they need to be repaired
  33. Conservatism 
    • Much less supportive of change in general
    • Change is disruptive, unforeseen outcomes
  34. Reactionary belief
    • Similar to conservatices, however they find the status que unacceptable
    • Willing to use violence
  35. Global Cosmopolitanism is emerging
    Universal political oder that draw its identity and values from every
  36. Non governmental organizations (NGOs)
    National and international groups, independent of any state, that pursue policy objectives and foster public participation
  37. Unitary system
    Concentrates all policy making powers in one central government
  38. Federal System
    Divides the power between the central government and  the subunits
  39. Globalization
    An integration of social, environmental, economic, and culture activities of nations that has resulted from increasing international contacts
  40. Centripetal forces
    Bind together the people of a state making it stronger. (i.e. nationalism encouraging allegiance, promotes loyalty)
  41. Centrifugal Forces
    destabilize government and encourage it to fall apart
  42. Ethinice
    Well-developed sense of belonging to the same culture (mix of language, religion, and customs)
  43. Devolution
    Ethinic, economic and spatial forces
  44. Economic
    inequalities may destabilize a nation -state 
  45. Spatial
    devolutionary events most often occur on the margins of state. Distance remotness and periphal location promote devolution (water, desert mountains)
  46. Head of state
    role that symbolized and represents the people 
  47. Head of Government
    deals with the everyday task of running the state, directs the activities of other member of the executive branch
  48. Bureacracies
    • agencies that generally implement government policy 
    • Size has been increasing since the 20th century due to government efforts to improve health, security, and welfare of their populations
  49. Characterists of Bureacracies
    • Hierarchical authority structure
    • task specialization
    • extensive rules
    • clear goals
    • the merit principle
    • impersonality 

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