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What can perioperative pain management be divided into?
What can poor timing of analgesia result in?
reduces the efficacy of an analgesic
What is the goal of preemptive anaglesia?
provide therapeutic intervention prior to a painful experience to prevent or minimize borth peripheral and CNS sensitization to the noxious stimulus
Which anesthetic-analgesics can be used for preemptive analgesia?
- local anesthetics
- alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists
Are preemptive analgesia possible for trauma cases? Why or why not?
- no because the pain is already induced by the tissue injury
- administer analgesia as soon as possible to avoid further wind up
A preemptive analgesia can reduce the amount of ____ and ____ required intraoperatively.
- inhalant anesthetic
When opioids are combined with sedative or tranquilizers, _____ are greatly enhanced.
sedation and analgesia
Which patients are NSAIDs contraindicated in?
patients with severe dehydration, renal impairment, or anticipated significant blood loss
If an animal receives an opioid preoperatively or intraoperatively then ____ of the original opioid dose should be administered for postoperative analgesia.
1/3 to 1/2
Should tramadol and NSAIDs be combined?
yes, they are better if they are combined
The lidocaine patch is used to treat what three types of pain?
- a constant deep aching or burning pain
- an intermittent pain with sharp, lancinating or jabbing quality
- a dysesthetic pain provoked by normally innocuous stimuli such as light touch, heat, or cold which lasts well beyond the duration of the stimulus
What are the advantages of using the lidocaine patch?
- peripheral action with minimal systemic side effects
- incomplete sensory block in the area of application
- a physical barrier against mechanical stimulation
- it is not a controlled drug
Can you cut a lidocaine patch to fit the application area without harming the effectiveness of the drug?