Veterinary Mycology

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kris10leejmu
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174860
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Veterinary Mycology
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2012-10-03 22:49:21
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Lab Tech ll
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Lab Tech ll
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  1. What are infectious diseases caused by?
    an organism
  2. What are the different organisms that can cause infection?
    • bacteria
    • fungi
    • viruses
    • parasites
  3. What are the different parasites that can cause infection?
    • protozoa
    • nematodes
    • trematodes
    • cestodes
  4. What are the different types of bacteria that cause infection?
    • Ecoli
    • Salmonella
    • Staphylococcus
  5. How can we tell bacteria apart?
    by shape and gram staining (red for gram - and blue for gram +)
  6. How can bacteria be treated?
    with antibiotics
  7. What is mycology?
    the study of fungi
  8. Are fungi aerobic?
    yes
  9. What does aerobic mean?
    needs O2 to survive
  10. Are fungal motile?
    • no
    • they can cannot move on their own
  11. Do fungi have cell walls?
    yes
  12. Do fungi use photosynthesis?
    no they exist as saprophytes or parasites
  13. What does saprophytes mean?
    grows on or in hosts
  14. Where do we find fungus?
    in the environment
  15. Pathogenic fungus can exist in 2 forms.  This means it is _____ fungi.
    dimorphic
  16. What are the 2 forms of fungus?
    • yeast
    • mold
  17. What temperature does yeast live at?
    body temperature
  18. What temperature does mold live at?
    room temperature
  19. Can you see mold with the naked eye?
    yes
  20. What is the growing form of mold?
    hyphae
  21. When hyphae become intertwined to form one large mass what is this called?
    mycellum
  22. What color is mycellum?
    green (when we see the green part of mold we are seeing the mycellum)
  23. What do hyphae reproduce?
    spores
  24. What is septa?
    • cross walls of hyphae
    • helps us identify the species
  25. What kind of reproduction does mold go through?
    asexual
  26. What are the different specialized spores mold reproduce as?
    • conidiophores
    • conidia
    • microconidia
  27. Are molds resistant in the environment?
    yes
  28. Is mold usually contagious?
    no
  29. Can we see yeast with the naked eye?
    • no
    • only microscopically
  30. What does yeast look like microscopically?
    • oval to spherical
    • 3 - 5 u
    • forms chains
  31. When yeast forms chains what is it called?
    pseudohypae
  32. How does yeast mainly reproduce?
    by sporulation or budding
  33. What are the different types of asexual reproduction?
    • sporulation
    • hyphae fragmentation
    • budding of yeast cells
  34. What does budding yeast cells look like under the microscope?
    a snowman or bowling pin
  35. Are fungal infections contagious?
    not usually
  36. Do fungal infections produce endotoxins?
    no
  37. What do fungal infections usually cause?
    chronic infections
  38. What type of chronic infections do fungal infections usually cause?
    granulomatous response
  39. What is a granulmatous response?
    how the body reacts to yeast - the body builds a wall of granulomas tissue around it
  40. Are fungal infections really invasive and destroy the host easily?
    no, they are low virulence/invasiveness
  41. What does virulence mean?
    destructiveness in the host - how much damage it does
  42. What does a granulomatous reaction look like?
    firm, white mass or masses
  43. What are the clinical signs of a granulomatous reaction?
    • low grade fever
    • weight loss
    • leukocytosis
    • +/- inappetance
  44. What are the predisposing factors for fungal infections?
    • decreased resistance 
    • moist environment
    • exposure to many organisms
    • necrotic focus (get into damaged tissue and establish themselves)
  45. What can cause a decreased resistance?
    • stress
    • immunosuppressive drugs or diseases
  46. Can healthy animals fight off fungal infections?
    usually
  47. How do we diagnose a fungal infection?
    • ID by microscrop appearance of organism (cytology/biopsy)
    • rarely cultured
    • elisa and latex agglutination tests
    • some skin tests available
  48. Why do we rarely culture fungal infections?
    because we don't want to grow them and expose ourselves to them
  49. Which fungal infection do we usually culture?
    dermatophytes
  50. What are the three classifications of fungus?
    • superficial mycoses
    • subcutaneous mycoses
    • deep mycoses
  51. What is a superficial mycoses?
    • dermatophytes
    • on the skin
  52. Where are subcutaneous mycoses?
    mucous membranes and deeper
  53. Where are deep mycoses?
    systemically invasion - causes more serious diseases
  54. What are dermatophytes often called?
    ringworm
  55. How are dermatophytes usually spread?
    by direct contact
  56. Who do dermatophytes mostly affect?
    younger animals
  57. What kind of species do dermatophytes often affect?
    all species
  58. Can people get ringworm from an animal?
    yes
  59. What are the three main dermatophytes?
    • Microsporum canis
    • Microsporum gypseum
    • Trichophyton mentagrophytes
  60. Microsporum canis causes _____ of cat cases.
    98%
  61. Microsporum canis causes _____ of dog cases.
    70%
  62. Who does Microsporum gypseum affect?
    • dogs
    • cats
    • rodents
  63. Who does Trichophyton mentagrophytes affect?
    horses and food animals
  64. What are ways to diagnose dermatophytes?
    • history and clinical signs
    • wood lamo in dark room
    • skin scraping
    • trichogram
    • sabouraud dextrose agar
  65. What color does a dermatophyte turn when you shine a wood lamp on it?
    apple green - indicates Microsporum canis
  66. If we shine a wood lamp on a spot that we suspect could be Microsporum canis and it does not light up apple green, does that mean that the animal does not have the fungus?
    no, a negative with this test does not necessarily mean it is a negative.
  67. What is a trichogram?
    arthrospores on/in hair
  68. How long does it take for the wood lamp to warm up?
    5 minutes
  69. What is the advantage to using a wood lamp?
    when it shows up positive it is definitely a positive
  70. How do we dissolve the scales and junk off the scraping?
    use KOH
  71. What is KOH?
    potassium hydroxide
  72. What do we use for cultures?
    DTM
  73. What is DTM?
    dermatophyte test medium
  74. What is in the DTM?
    phenol red indicator
  75. How do we do a DTM?
    • place a few plucked hairs on agar
    • apply cap loosely
    • grow at 25 - 30 degrees celsius (room temperature)
    • grow slowly 3 - 10 - 30 days
  76. Why do you put the cap on loosely for a DTM?
    so oxygen can get in
  77. How often do we check the DTM?
    everyday
  78. When we are checking the DTM, what are we looking for?
    • early red color
    • mycelium
    • contaminants
  79. How early should the DTM turn red?  What does it mean if it turns red late?
    • within 3 - 5 days
    • if it turns red after 5 days then it is a contaminant
  80. What does the mycelium look like in a DTM?
    • white to buff (pale yellow) color
    • cottony first then turns powdery
  81. What do contaminants look like?
    black, green, or brown
  82. What is the difference between a DTM and a DermatoPlate-Duo?
    DermatoPlate-Duo only shows color change, it does not show any growth
  83. What color does DermatoPlate-Due turn and when does it turn?
    blue-green in 3-7 days
  84. How do we do a microscopic ID after the culture?
    • remove a piece of the culture and place it on a slide
    • stain it with lactophenol cotton blue
    • examine macroconidia
  85. What does M. canis macroconidia look like?
    • canoe shaped
    • thick walls
    • knob on end
    • 6 or more cells inside
  86. What does M. gypseum macroconidia look like?
    • canoe shaped
    • thick walls
    • no end knob
    • fewer than 6 cells inside
  87. What does Trichophyton macronconidia look like?
    • cigar shaped
    • smooth, thin walls
    • variable number of cells inside
  88. What is Dermatophilus congolensis?
    a bacterium, not a fungus
  89. What does Dermatophilus congolensis look like on the animal?
    crusty skin lesion, looks similar to ringworm
  90. What does Dermatophilus congolensis look like under a microscope?
    • organisms in beaded chain
    • look like blue railroad tracks
  91. What does Dermatophilosis look like?
    ringworm
  92. What type of animals do we usually see Dermatophilosis in?
    large animals
  93. What are other names for Dermatophilosis?
    • streptothricosis
    • lumpy wool
  94. What are sporotrichosis?
    see subcutaneous nodules and ulcers
  95. What part of the body does sporotrichosis follow?
    the lymphatic system
  96. What does Sporothrix schneckii look like under a microscope?
    • round-oval rod shapes
    • thin, clear halo
    • may resemble histoplasma
  97. What is the normal flora in the GI and urinary tract?
    Candida albicans
  98. What species does Candida albicans become pathogenic?
    birds
  99. What does Candida albicans look like?
    small coccoid mass with thin wall
  100. What is candidiasis?
    an overgrowth of C. albicans
  101. What does candidiasis look like on a smear?
    • blue with thick wall (DQ)
    • blue on gram stain
  102. What are other names for candidiasis?
    • thrush
    • frounce
  103. What is the bacteria that causes white nose syndrome in bats?
    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
  104. What does Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis do to bats?
    causes them to wake up in the middle of winter when there is no food and they starve to death
  105. What percent of the bat population is down due to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis?
    80 - 97%
  106. What is the normal flora on the skin and in the ears?
    Malassezia pachydermatis
  107. What can an overgrowth of Malassezia pachydermatis cause?
    yeast infection in ears and on skin
  108. What is chromomycosis?
    chronic cutaneous or subcutaneous infection
  109. What color fungi is chromomycosis?
    black (pigmented)
  110. Which species do we see chromomycosis in?
    • mainly seen in reptiles, amphibians, and fish
    • can be seen in domestic mammals
    • becoming a big problem with frogs
  111. Which organism causes chromomycosis?
    phialophora
  112. What causes Blastomycosis?
    Blastomyces dermatitidis
  113. Where in the body do we find Blastomyces dermatitidis?
    in lungs, sking, and nodes
  114. What does Blastomyces dermatitidis look like?
    large yeast with thick wall and often seen budding
  115. How do we diagnose Blastomycosis?
    • aspirate
    • see chronic inflammation
    • ELISA/skin tests available
    • rarely cultured
  116. What causes histoplasmosis?
    Histoplasma capsulatum
  117. Where do we find Histoplasma capsulatum?
    in lungs and nodes
  118. Where in the enviornment do we find Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum?
    river valleys
  119. What does histoplasma look like under a microscope?
    • small yeast
    • thick wall
    • seen in cytoplasm of macrophages
  120. What causes cryptococcosis?
    Cryptococcus neoformans
  121. Where do we find cryptococcus neoformans?
    • CNS
    • lungs
    • nodes
  122. What does cryptococcosis look like?
    • single, large, thick walled yeast
    • surrounded by non-staining wide gelatinous capsule
    • may see budding
  123. What causes coccidiodomycosis?
    Coccidiodes immitis
  124. What is another name for coccidiodomycosis?
    valley fever
  125. Where in the country do we see Coccidiodoes immitis?
    dry areas - SW U.S.
  126. Where in the body do we see Coccidiodes immitis?
    lungs but may spread to other sites like bones
  127. What does Coccidiodes immitis look like under a microscope?
    • thick wall
    • endospores inside (little things inside)
    • see spherules (large yeast)
    • do not bud
    • may not be in focus with segs (out of focus when segs are in focus, in focus when segs are out of focus)
  128. What causes aspergillosis?
    Aspergillus fumigatus
  129. Where do we find Aspergillus fumigatus in the body?
    nasal passages or lungs
  130. What can Aspergillus fumigatus cause in ruminants?
    abortions
  131. Which species is Aspergillus fumigatus pathogenic in?
    birds
  132. What does Aspergillus fumigatus look like under the microscope?
    see hyphae (not yeast)
  133. What causes Aspergillus fumigatus?
    poor ventilation and stress
  134. What is mycotoxicosis?
    toxins soem fungi produce
  135. Where do we find mycotoxicosis?
    common on grain and forage
  136. What problems do mycotoxicosis cause?
    • CNS (depression, convulsions)
    • hepatitis
    • abortion
    • death
    • neoplasia
    • chronic exposure
  137. What do we need in order to diagnose Mycotoxicosis?
    feedstuff
  138. How can we avoid mycotoxicosis?
    don't feed moldy food to animals

  139. What is this?
    Aspergillus fumigatus

  140. What is this?
    Aspergillus fumigatus

  141. What is this?
    Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae with spores

  142. What is this?
    Blastomyces dermatitidis

  143. What is this?
    Candida albicans

  144. What is this?
    Coccidiodes immitis

  145. What is this?
    Coccidiodes immitis

  146. What is this?
    Coccidiodes immitis

  147. What is this?
    Cryptococcus neoformans

  148. What is this?
    Cryptococcus neoformans

  149. What is this?
    Cryptococcus neoformans

  150. What is this?
    Cryptococcus neoformans budding

  151. What are the "railroad track" looking things?
    Dermatophilus congolensis

  152. What is this?
    Histoplasma capsulatum

  153. What is this?
    Malassezia pachydermatis

  154. What is this?
    Microsporum canis

  155. What is this?
    Microsproum gypseum

  156. What is this?
    Phialophora

  157. What is this?
    Sporothrix schneckii

  158. What is this?
    Sporotrichosis

  159. What is this?
    Trichophyton mentagrophytes

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