Daily Concept review

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lazzsant
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Daily Concept review
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2012-10-16 18:43:11
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Daily Concept review
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Daily Concept review
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  1. Uses for Metronidazole
    GET GAP on the metro

    • Giardia
    • Entamoeba
    • Trichomonas

    • Gardnerella vaginalis
    • Anaerobes
    • H. Pylori
  2. Complex associated with Wilm's tumor
    WAGR

    • Wilms tumor
    • Aniridia(no iris)
    • Genitourinary malformation
    • Retardation
  3. Equation for Vd
  4. Equation for Clearance
  5. Loading Dose
    Css x Vd
  6. Maintenance Dose
    Css x CL
  7. Cholimimetic agents
    Direct agonists

    • Bethanechol- postop ileus and urinary retention
    • Carbachol- Glaucoma, pupillary contraction, and dec IOP
    • Pilocarpine- Potent stimulator of sweat, tears, saliva
    • Methacholine- Diagnosis of asthma

    • Indirect (anticholinesterases)
    • Neostigmine- Postop ileus and urinary retention, myasthenia gravis, reversal of NMJ blockade
    • Pyridostigmine- gets rid of myasthenia gravis
    • Edrophonium- Dx of myasthenia gravis
    • Physostigmine- Glaucoma, fixes atropine overdose
    • Echothiophate- Glaucoma
  8. Phase II metabolism in the liver
    Acetylation, glucuronidation, sulfation

    -> very polar, inactive metabolites
  9. Cafe-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty
    McCune-Albright syndrome (mosaic G-protein signaling mutation)
  10. Cherry red spot on macula
    Tay Sachs (ganglioside accumulation)

    Niemann Pick (sphingomyelin accumulation)

    central artery occlusion
  11. Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia, but can conjugate to adduction.
    Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (damage to MLF; b/l = multiple sclerosis, u/l = stroke)
  12. Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syhillis
    Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (rapid lysis of spirochetes results in toxin release)
  13. Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms
    Gaucher's disease(glucocerebrosidase deficiency)

    crinkled tissue paper on histology
  14. Encapsulated bacteria
    Some Killers Have Nice Shiny Bodies

    • Strep pneumo
    • Klebsiella pneumoniae
    • Haemophilus influenzae type B
    • Neisseria meningitidis
    • Salmonella
    • group B strep
    • Above have polysaccharide capsules

    Bacillus anthracis has D-glutamate capsule  
  15. Spore forming bacteria
    • Bacillus Anthracis
    • Clostridium perfringens
    • C. tetani
    • B. cereus
    • C. botulinum
    • Coxciella burnetti
  16. What is Giemsa stain used for
    • Borrelia
    • Plasmodium
    • trypanosomes
    • chlamydia
  17. Obligate aerobes
    Nagging Pests Must Breathe

    • Nocardia
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • Bacillus
  18. Exposure to what needs passive immunity along with active immunity?
    To Be Healed Real  Rabidly

    • Tetanus toxin
    • Botulinum toxin
    • HBV
    • Rabies
    • RSV
  19. P450 Inibitors
    PICK EGS

    • Protease inhibitors
    • Isoniazid
    • Cimetidine
    • Ketoconazole

    • Erythromycin
    • Grapefruit juice
    • Sulfonamides
  20. P450 INducers
    • Carbamazepine
    • Phenobarbital
    • Phenytoin
    • Rifampin
    • Griseofulvin
  21. Poluria, acidosis, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances
    Fanconi's syndrome (proximal tubular reabsorption defect)
  22. Renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastoma, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma
    von Hippel-Lindau disease (dominant tumor supressor gene mutation)
  23. Restrictive cardiomyopathy (juvenile form: cardiomegaly)
    exercise intolerance
    Pompes disease (lysosomal glucosidase deficiency)
  24. Short stature, inc incidence of tumors/leukemia, aplastic anemia
    Fanconi's anemia (genetically inherited; often progresses to AML)
  25. Smooth flat, moist white lesions on genitals
    Condylomata lata (2nd syphilis)
  26. Neurotransmitter changes seen with Anxiety
    • Increased NEP
    • Decreased GABA, serotonin
  27. Neurotransmitter changes seen with Depression
    Decreased NEP, serotonin, dopamine
  28. Neurotransmitter changes seen with Alzheimers
    Decreased ACh
  29. Neurotransmitter changes seen with Huntingtons q
    decreased GABA, ACh
  30. Neural crest cell derivatives
    • ANS
    • dorsal root ganglia
    • cranial nerves
    • celiac ganglion
    • melanocytes
    • chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla
    • parafollicular cells of thyroid
    • Schwann cell
    • Pic and arachnoid
    • bones of skull
    • odontoblasts
    • aorticopulmonary septum
  31. Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils
    • Homer Wright rosettes
    • (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, Ewing Sarcoma)
  32. Buspirone
    Stimulates 5-HT1A receptors

    Clinical: Generalized anxiety disorder

    Takes 2 weeks to have an effect
  33. Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia
    Bone is replaced by fibroblasts, collagen and irregular bony trabeculae. Affects many bones.
  34. Acantholysis
    Separation of epidermal cells

    Seen in Pemphigus vulgaris
  35. What hormone uses the cAMP pathway?
    • FSH
    • LH
    • ACTH
    • TSH
    • CRH
    • hCG
    • ADH (V2 receptor)
    • MSH
    • PTH
    • calcitonin
    • GHRH
    • glucagon

    • FLAT CHAMP
    • a subunit common among these
  36. What cells do not need insulin for glucose uptake
    • Brain
    • RBC
    • Intestine
    • Cornea
    • Kidney
    • Liver

    BRICK L
  37. What drug inhibits the formation of PRPP from ribose 5-P
    PRPP synthetase is the enzyme

    6-mercaptopurine is the drug inhibiting this enzyme
  38. What binds the 30S subunit, preventing attachment of aminoacyl-tRNA
    Tetracyclines
  39. Antibiotics that binds 50S, blocking translocation
    • Macrolides
    • clindamycin
    • linezolid
  40. Call-Exner bodies
    Small follicles filled with eosinophilic secretions

    • Seen in Granulosa cell tumor-
    • -> secretes estrogen -> precocious puberty in kids
    • or endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma in adults
  41. Drugs that cause gynecomastia
    • Spironolactone
    • Digitalis
    • Cimetidine
    • Alcohol
    • Ketoconazole

    Some Drugs Create Awesome Knockers

    also estrogen, marijuana, heroin, psychoactive drugs
  42. Most common breast cancer
    Invasive ductal carcinoma

    Firm, fibrous, rock-hard mass with sharp margins and small glandular duct-like cells

    Worst and most invasive
  43. Drug reactions that cause seizures
    • Bupropion
    • imipenem/cilastatin
    • isoniazid
    • benzodiazepine and alcohol withdrawal
  44. I cell disease
    Failure of Golgi apparatus to add mannose-6-phosphate to lysosome proteins = secreted out of cell

    • Coarse facial features
    • clouded corneas
    • restricted joint movements
    • high plasma levels of lysosomal enzymes
  45. Drugs that act on microtubules
    • Mebendazole/thiabendazole
    • Griseofulvin
    • Vincristine/vinblastine
    • Paclitaxel
    • Colchicine
  46. Hormones that use IP3
    • GnRH
    • Oxytocin
    • ADH
    • TRH

    GOAT
  47. What areas of the brain are most susceptible to ischemia?
    • Hippocampus
    • neocortex
    • cerebellum
    • watershed areas
  48. Menieres Disease
    • vertigo
    • tinitus
    • hearing loss
  49. Tanner stage 1 in girls
    elevation of the papilla of the breast and pubic hair consisting of fine villus hair
  50. Free nerve endings
    • C- slow, unmyelinated fibers
    • Adelta- fast myelinated fibers

    All skin, epidermis, some viscera

    Sense Pain and temperature

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