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Amines are derivatives of _____________ and thus are____________ ___________.
Ammonia; weak bases
things that contain nitrogen (amines)
enzymes, protiens, DNA, hormones, Rx drugs, illegal drugs
bent bc of H bonding
- primary,secondary, tertiary
- # of Carbon atoms directly bonded to the Nitrogen
Amines accept _____ from an _______, acting as weak bases, and become an _______.
hydrogen; acid; ion
an ion with all 4 hydrogens replaced with alkyl groups is called
- quartenary ammonium
- (known as an ammonium ion, not an amide)
In the common system, you name amines by
naming the group or groups attached to the nitrogen atom and adding the word amine.
amino group attatched to a benzene ring is called
ions are named ______ except we end them with ___________.
like amines; -ammonium ion
amines capable of hydrogen bonding
compare N-H bond to O-H bond
N-H bond in amines/amides isnt as strong as O-H because O is more electronegative than N
tertiary amines BPs
close to ethers bc they are incapable of H bonding
name with decreasing polarity groups that are polar with hydrogen bonding
- carboxylic acids
- amines (only prim. and sec.)
name with decreasing polarity groups that are polar with NO hydrogen bonding
- tertiary amines
groups that are non-polar
- hydrocarbons like
low # carbon amines smell
large # carbon amines smell like _________. Amines responseable?
dead fish; putrescine, cadaverine (both diamines)
amines as bases
the lone pair on the N can accept a proton (hydrogen ion) from H2O to form the ammonium
ion and the hydroxide ion
top 3 strong acids?
- hydrochloric HNO3
- sulfuric H2SO4
- nitric HNO3
- all want to donate hydrogens
insoluable amines will ______
- react with strong acids to form soluable ammonium salts.
- (a compound that's insoluable will always be soluable as a salt of that compound)
naming ammonium salts
- name the +ion first, the - second
- remember if - part is a carboxylic acid, ends in -ate, otherwise if just an element, -ide
Rx companies convert
drugs that are insoluable to soluable amines for ease of transport in the blood
carboxylic acids react with ammonia to produce _____
carboxylic acids react with amines to produce_____. used for
substituted amides and H2O; linking amino acids to make protiens. peptide bonds...
amide group bond
_________ is ________ and occurs naturally in some foods.
Sodium Nigrite; inorganic
gives pink color to foods
Sodium Nitrite; makes it more appealing
Sodium nitrite is an additive in ____ and ___. prevents _____
hot dogs and cold cuts; growth of bacteria, especially kind that causes botulism ( potentially fatal food poisioning)
theory about nitrites
responseable for stomach and intestinal cancer; some say there is no connection
when consumed, nitrites
react with stomach acid (HCl) to produce nitrous acid that then reacts with amines in our food to create nitrosoamines
heterocyclic amines consist of
different atoms other than carbon in a cyclic compound
_____ contains heterocylcic amines.
- DNA bases (A,T,C,G)
- sugars (heterocyclic compounds containing oxygen)
pyridine-common heterocyclic amine
when there is a NH2 (can be substituted) in place of the OH group thats attatched to the C with the =O of carboxylic acids