Ch. 18 Test
Home > Flashcards > Print Preview
The flashcards below were created by user
on FreezingBlue Flashcards
. What would you like to do?
Fundamental Attribution Error
tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal disposition
belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people and events
When we are the actor, we tend to attribute our own behavior to external causes. When we are the observer, we tend to attribute their behavior to internal causes.
Blaming the Victim
- We tend to blame the victims of misfortune for causing their own misfortune or for not taking steps to prevent or avoid it.
- Partly due to the just-world bias.
- the bias that human actions eventually have fair and fitting consequences.
- ex: you do something bad, something bad happens to you
- the tendency for someone to take credit for their own success by attributing them to internal, personal causes, along with the tendency to distance ourselves from our failures by attributing them to external, situational causes.
- more common in individualistic cultures
- more common than self-eflacing bias
- the tendency for someone to blame themself for their failures, attibuting them to internal, personal causes, while downplaying our successes by attributing them to external, situational causes.
- more common in collectivistic cultures
feeds mutual liking, liking leads to positive behavior
tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
The reciprocity norm and compliance
- we feel obliged to return favors
- opposite of foot-in-the-door phenomenon
- wanting the favor in the first place is irrelevant
- ex: we get a free sample and feel compelled to buy the product
Defense on persuasion techniques
- sleep on it
- play devil's advocate
- pay attention to your gut feeling
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
- we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent
- ex: when we become aware that our attitudes and actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
- set of expectations about a social position
- defines how those in position are supposed to behave
- ex: Stanford Prison Experiment
Prison Guard Experiment
- conducted by: Phillip Zimbardo, Stanford
- volunteer participants, either take on role of guard or prisoner
- real life prison setting
- participants asked to act accordingly to their role
- supposed to last 2 weeks, had to be stopped after 6 days to ensure physical and psychological health of participants
The Chameleon Effect
unconsciously mimicking others' expressions, postures, voice tones, etc
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
Normative social influence
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
Asch's conformity experiments
confederates all said the wrong answer to see what the participant would say
factors that promote conformity
- unanimous group of at least 4 people
- give response in front of group
- have not already expressed commitment to a different idea or opinion
- task is difficult
- doubt your own abilities or knowledge
- strongly attracted to a group member or want to be apart of it
compliance of person is due to percieved authority of asker
conducted obedience experiment in which the teacher (participant) would shock the learner (confederate) when they answered the question wrong.
- improved performance of tasks in the presence of others
- occurs in simple or well-learned tasks but not difficult or not yet mastered ones
tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward a common goal than when individually accountable
- mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides realistic appraisal of alternative
- the alternative is not even considered
- one persons perceptions leads the other to act in way that confirm them
- ex: Dan ignores Sally because he thinks she is a snob, so Sally ignores Dan, confirming his snob preconception
social history is often made by a minority that sways the majority
- an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members
- includes stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
- a generalized belief aboout a group of people
- sometimes accurate, but often overgeneralized
What would you like to do?
Home > Flashcards > Print Preview