tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal disposition
belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people and events
When we are the actor, we tend to attribute our own behavior to external causes. When we are the observer, we tend to attribute their behavior to internal causes.
Blaming the Victim
We tend to blame the victims of misfortune for causing their own misfortune or for not taking steps to prevent or avoid it.
Partly due to the just-world bias.
the bias that human actions eventually have fair and fitting consequences.
ex: you do something bad, something bad happens to you
the tendency for someone to take credit for their own success by attributing them to internal, personal causes, along with the tendency to distance ourselves from our failures by attributing them to external, situational causes.
more common in individualistic cultures
more common than self-eflacing bias
the tendency for someone to blame themself for their failures, attibuting them to internal, personal causes, while downplaying our successes by attributing them to external, situational causes.
more common in collectivistic cultures
feeds mutual liking, liking leads to positive behavior
tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
The reciprocity norm and compliance
we feel obliged to return favors
opposite of foot-in-the-door phenomenon
wanting the favor in the first place is irrelevant
ex: we get a free sample and feel compelled to buy the product
Defense on persuasion techniques
sleep on it
play devil's advocate
pay attention to your gut feeling
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent
ex: when we become aware that our attitudes and actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
set of expectations about a social position
defines how those in position are supposed to behave
ex: Stanford Prison Experiment
Prison Guard Experiment
conducted by: Phillip Zimbardo, Stanford
volunteer participants, either take on role of guard or prisoner
real life prison setting
participants asked to act accordingly to their role
supposed to last 2 weeks, had to be stopped after 6 days to ensure physical and psychological health of participants