ANTH 101 CH 5-7
Card Set Information
ANTH 101 CH 5-7
Language Ethnicity Working
Language, Ethnicity, Working
primary means of communication, spoken and written
communication systems of nonhuman primates
transmission through learning, basic to language
creating new expressions that are comprehensible to other speakers
describing things and events that are not present; basic to language
study of communication through body movements and facial expressions
study of a language's phonemics and phonetics
linguistic study of morphemes and word construction
vocabulary; all the morphemes in a language and their meanings
arrangement of words in phrases and sentences
smallest sound contrast that distinguishes meaning
study of speech sounds - what people actually say
study of sound contrasts (phonemes) in a language
idea that different languages produce different patterns of thought
set of words describing particular domains (foci) of experience
study of lexical (vocabulary) categories and contrasts
a language's meaning system
varying one's speech in different social contexts
language with "high" and "low" dialects
terms of respect
Black English Vernacular (BEV)
rule-governed dialect spoken by some African Americans
ordinary, casual speech
words that sound the same but have different meanings
(linguistics) closely related languages
study of languages over time
languages sharing a common parent language (i.e. Latin)
language ancestral to several daughter languages
they can't combine the calls for food and danger into a single utterance
Research on communication skills of nonhuman primates reveals that ___.
When Washoe and Lucy tried to teach sign language to other chimps, this was an example of ___ ___.
mutation / linguistic / cultural abilities
Recent research on the origin of language suggests that a ___ in humans (150K y.a.) may have conferred selective advantages (___ and ___ ___).
They may convey or imply a status difference between the speaker and the person being referred to or addressed.
Why would sociolinguists be interested in studying the use of honorifics?
changes in culture produce changes in language and thought rather than the reverse.
(as opposed to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis)
Studies on the differences between female and male Americans inregard to the color terms they use suggest that ___.
Pierre Bourdieu's term: In a stratified society, even people who do not speak the prestige dialect tend to accept it as "standard" or superior.
500 / 7,000
The world's linguistic diversity has been cut in half in the past ___ years, and half of the remaining ___ laguages are predicted to disappear during this century.
one among several culturally distinct groups in a society or region
identification with an ethnic group
any position that determines where someone fits in society
social statuses based on little or no choice (i.e. age)
Social statuses based on choices or accomplishments
ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis
discrimination against an ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis
assigning organisms to categories (purportedly) based on common ancestry
characteristics that are physically visible
social identity based on ancestry
children assigned to same group as minority parent
class-structured, with differences in wealth, prestige, and power
society sharing a language, religion, history, territory, ancestry, and kinship
stratefied society with formal, central government
an autonomous political entity, a country
ethnic groups that have, once had, or want their own country
long-term foreign domination of a territory and its people
absorption of minorities within a dominant culture
Society with economically interdependent ethnic groups
view of cultural diversity as valuable and worth maintaining
devaluing a group because of its assumed attributes
fixed ideas about what members of a group are like
policies and practices that harm a group and its members
deliberate elimination of a group through mass murder
destruction of cultures of certain ethnic groups
people who flee a country to escape persecution of war
internal domination by one group and its culture or ideology over others
Situational Negotiation of Social Identity
when claimed or perceived identity varies depending on the audience
human populations have not been isolated enough from one another to develop such discrete groups.
Humanity lacks "races/breeds" because ___.
Phenotypical similarities and differences don't necessariyl have a ___ ___.
increasingly focusing their attention on explaining why specific biological variations occur.
Rather than attempting to classify humans into racial categories, biologists and anthropologists are ___.
Historically in Brazil, freed offspring of master and slave filled many intermediate positions in the emerging Brazilian economy.
What historical fact helps to explain the differences between American and Brazilian social constructions of race?
means of making a living; productive system
association; when one variable changes, another does, too
basic social unit among foragers; less than 100 people - may split seasonally
nonindustrial plant cultivation with fallowing
cultivation using land and labor continuously and intensively
continuum of land and labor use
herders of domesticated animals
annual movement of entire pastoral group with herds
only part of population moves seasonally with herds
system of resource production, distribution, and consumption
Mode of Production
specific set of social relations that organizes labor
Means (Factors) of Production
major productive resource (i.e. land, labor, capital, technology)
flow of goods into center, then back out; characteristic of chiefdoms
principle governing exchanges among social equals
buying, selling, and valuation based on supply and demand
runs from generalized (closely related/deferred return) to negative (strangers/ immediate return) reciprocity.
Exchanges among closely related individuals
, between generalized and negative
potentially hostile exchanges among strangers
competitive feast on North Pacific Coast of North America
Ceremonial redistribution of material goods inhibits ___.
In nonindustrial societies, a ___ mode of production prevails.
they suggest correlations
Typologies are useful tools of analysis because ___.
separation from the product of one's labor
Economic alienation in industrial societies comes about as a result of ___.