bones and skeletal tissue

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toribloom
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174953
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bones and skeletal tissue
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2012-10-02 21:00:34
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Bones skeletal tissue
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bones and skeletal tissue
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  1. Haversian system, or ________ is the structural unit of compact bone.
    osteon
  2. ESSAY! 5 of the 8 bone diseases.
    • Rickets- insufficient calcium, vitamin D deficient- soft bones- bowed legs, deformities of pelvis, skull, rib cages.
    • Paget Disease-excessive bone formation and breakdown- high ratio of woven to compact bone- spotty weakening of bone.
    • osteomaletis=inflamation from bacteria infection
    • osteoma=benign bone tumor in flat bones
    • osteochondroma=benign tumor of bone and cartilage, forms bone spurs
    • Osteosarcoma- most deadly bone cancer
    • Osteogenesis Imperfecta- brittle bones
    • Achondroplastic(Dwardism)
  3. The ________ are weight-bearing, column-like matrix tubes composed of collagen connected to each other by ________.
    lamella, canaliculi
  4. What are the Haversian?
    Central canals that contain blood vessels and nerves.
  5. What are the channels lying at right angles to the central canal, connecting blood and nerve supply of the periosteum to that of the Haversian canal?
    Lamella
    mesenchyme
    Volkmann's canals
    Volkmann's canals
  6. The _________ are hairlike canals that connect the lacunae to each other and the central canal.

    canaliculi
    Volkmann's canals
    Sharpey's fibers
    canaliculi
  7. The ________ is the double layered protective membrane of the bone.

    matrix
    periosteum
    mesenchyme
    Periosteum
  8. Osteogenic cells or stem cells that develop from _______.
    osteoblasts
    fibroblasts
    osteoclasts
    fibroblasts
  9. The outer fibrous layer is which connective tissue?

    Dense regular
    Dense irregular
    Areolar
    dense regular
  10. The _____ is a delicate membrane covering internal surfaces of bone.
    Endosteum
    periosteum
    Endosteum
  11. The inner osteogenic layer is composed of _______ and ________.
    • osteoblasts
    • osteoclasts
  12. ______ bone is honeycomb like trabeculae filled with yellow bone marrow.
    spongy
  13. ______ marrow, Hematopoietic tissue produces red blood cells and is found in nearly every bone ina child.
    Red
  14. _____ marrow is fat-filled medullary cavities in all long bones of adults.
    yellow
  15. Red marrow is limited to the skull, vertebrae, ribs, sternum, part of the pelic girdle, and proximal heads of the femur and humerus.
    True/false
    True
  16. What are osteoblasts?
    (builders) Bone forming cells found in endosteum and periosteum
  17. Osteogenic cells are?
    stem cells that develop from fibroblasts and give rise to other bone cells. Found in endosteum and central canals.
  18. What are osteocytes?
    Mature bone cells trapped in lacunae
  19. What are osteoclasts?
    (crushers) large cells that resorb or break down bone matrix originating from stem cells. 
  20. Long bones consist of a __________ and a _______.
    diaphysis, epiphysis
  21. What is a diaphysis?
    Tubular shafts that form the axis of long bones. compact bone surrounding the medullary cavity, containing yellow bone marrow.
  22. What is the epiphyses?
    Expanded end of long bones, exterior compact bone, interior is spongy bone. Joint surface covered with articular (hyaline) cartilage.
  23. The _________ ____ separates the diaphysis from the epiphyses.
    epiphyseal line
  24. The axis of the long bone is the _____.
    • diaphysis
    • epiphyses
  25. Mature bone cells called __________, are found in the lacunae of compact bone.
    osteoblast
    osteocytes
    osteoclast
    osteocytes
  26. Bone tissue comprised of trabeculae is called ____ bone.
    spongy
  27. Compact bone consists of ______.
    osteons
  28. _____ refers to the spongy bone structure (or tissue) of the internal part of short, irregular, and flat bones.
    Diploe
  29. collagenous fibers that secure the periosteum to the underlying bone.
    Sharpey's fibers
  30. A thin plate or layer of tissue, particularly those found in spongy bone, are called:
    lamellae
    trabeculae
    spicules
    trabeculae
  31. ________ are the layers of matrix within the trabeculae.

    spicules
    lamellae
    diploe
    lamellae
  32. Trabeculae are found in spongy bone.
    true/false
    true
  33. Calcium and phosphate are used to form bone matrix.
    True/false
    true
  34. Vitamin D is produced by the skin, liver, and kidneys in sequential order.
    true/false
    true
  35. epiphyseal plate is found between the ______ and ______ in youth and is the site of bone elongation.
    epiphysis, diaphysis
  36. What is Hydroxyapatites?
    mineral salts, 65% of bone mass, mostly calcium phosphates.
  37. Periosteum is composed of ____ _______ connective tissue.
    Dense regular
  38. The ________ is supplied with nerve fibers, blood, and lymphatic vessels via the nutrient _____.
    periosteum, foramina
  39. Intramembranous ossification: 
    put in order.

    1. mesenchyme (embryonic connective tissue condenses into a layer of soft tissue, cells differentiate into osteogenic cells and network of trabeculae

    2. Trabeculae at surface continue to calcify form compact bones.

    3. Osteoblasts continue to deposit minerals, bony trabeculae produced.

    4. Osteogenic cells become osteoblasts, trapped osteoblasts become osteocytes. Mesenchyme forms periosteum.
    1, 4, 3, 2

    1. mesenchyme (embryonic connective tissue condenses into a layer of soft tissue, cells differentiate into osteogenic cells and network of trabeculae

    4. Osteogenic cells become osteoblasts, trapped osteoblasts become osteocytes. Mesenchyme forms periosteum.

    3. Osteoblasts continue to deposit minerals, bony trabeculae produced.

    2. Trabeculae at surface continue to calcify form compact bones.
  40. Endochondral ossification:
    • 1. Bone collar from chondrocytes of hyaline cartilage into osteoblasts.
    • 2. form primary ossification center- cavitation of hyaline cartilage.
    • 3. invasion of internal cavities by the periosteal bud (blood and stem cells), spongy bone
    • 4. Formation of medullary cavity; secondary ossification centers in the epiphyses.
  41. Calcitonin (secreted by thyroid gland) stimulates ____ ____ deposits in bone.
    calcium salts
  42. Calcitonin inhibits ____ and stimulates ________.
    osteoclasts, osteoblasts
  43. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) signals ________ to degrade bone matrix and release Ca2+ into the blood.
    osteoclasts
  44. Teh epiphyseal plate activity is stimulated by ____ ______ in infancy and childhood.

    Payrathyroid hormone
    growth hormone
    calcium salts
    growth hormone.

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