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what is VAERS?
vaccine adverse event reporting system.
what is VIS?
vaccine information statements. informational packet
nurse's role when a parent refuses or delays vaccines?
assess their reasons in a non-confrontational way. paraphrase and give them accurate information
which provides better immunity: natural infection or artificially acquired?
almost always natural
inactivated virus provides what % protection?
90-100%. requires frequent boosters
passive immunity given when?
congenital immunodefiency, transplant, cancer
what type of protection has highest level of side effects? natural active / natural passive / artificial active / artificial passive
natural active acquired
hep B given when?
- birth to 2 months
- 1 to 4 months
- 6 to 18 months
side fx of hep B vaccine?
low grade fever
what are given to babies exposed or possibly exposed to hep B?
hep B vaccine & HBIG (hep B immune globulin)
Dtap includes what?
diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis
when is a Dtap given? / how many?
- series of 5 injections:
- 2, 4, 6 months
- boosters at 15-18 months and 4-6 years
possible side effects of Dtap?
- swelling, soreness, fever, restlessness, inconsolable
- possible allergic reaction - seizure or brain alteration. look for nonstop crying > 3 hours of fever up to 105
polio vaccine given when
- 2, 4, 6-18 months
- booster at 4-6 years
- given subQ
Pedarix and Pentacel?
combo of Dtap, IPV, hep B
dont give polio vaccine if allergic to...
neomycin, streptomycin, or polymyxin B
HIB haemophilus influenza B
2, 4, 6 months and 12-18 months
pneumococcal conjugate PCVR13 (Prevnar)
- protects against meningitis and various other strands
- given 2, 4, 6, 12-15 months
PPV23 (Pneumovax). used for who?
- not approved for under 2 years
- used for chronically ill children/immunodeficient
if reaction to DTap, should not get what?
Prevnar or Pneumovax
- eggs or bird reactions
- < 6 months old
TIV - influenza (Fluzone)
- inactivated. should get it in fall and winter
- first time under age of 9: 2 doses 4 weeks apart
LAIV (influenza) Flumist
- intranasal. 2-49 years old
- 2 doses 4 weeks apart
symptoms of rotaviris?
gastroenteritis virus causing fever, vomiting, severe diarrhea > serious dehydration.
Rotateq and Rotarix
2 types of rotavirus vaccines
Rotarix given orally how?
2 doses at age 2 and 4
is rotavirus vaccine live or killed?
first dose must be given between what ages?
no earlier than 6 weeks of age, no later than 14 weeks
contraindications for rotavirus vaccine?
- uncorrected congenital GI malformations
- any pts with immunocompromised siblings
adverse reactions of rotavirus vaccine?
- mild: fever, runny nose, fussy, vomiting
- severe: intussception, Kawasaki disease
MMR vaccine is live or killed?
MMR given when?
12-15 months and again at 4-6 years
MMR given in how many doses?
2 (12-15 months & 4-6 years)
contraindications to MMR?
- allergies to gelatin, neomycin, or previous dose
- allergies to egg >> must be watched for 90 min
- + PPD
varicella vaccine - live or killed?
varicella - how many doses & when?
two (12-15 months & 4-6 years)
contraindications to varicella vaccine
- allergies to gelatin, neomycin, streptomycin
- severely immunocompromised (HIV+, chemo)
MMRV vaccine contains immunity against what?
measles, mumps, rubella, varicella
MMRV approved for what ages?
HiB has helped with a decreased incidence of what?
varicella and MMR should not be given prior to what age?
RSV vaccine given to what population?
<2 years of age who has CLD, CHD, severe immunodeficiency
RSV given prophylactically to what population?
target population for HPV (Gardasil)?
how many doses and when for HPV vaccine?
- 3 doses total
- first dose: reccommended @11-12 years.
- second dose: 2 months after first dose
- third dose: 6 months after first dose
contraindication for HPV?
Hep A vaccine - how many doses, when given?
- 12 months
- 18 months - booster
how is hep A spread?
person to person; contaminated food & water
meningococcal vaccine (MCV4) - given when?
- routine around 11-18 years
- 19-55 for high risk population (college frosh, travelers)
general vaccine contraindications?
- immunocompromised persons (especially live viruses)
- hx of anaphylaxis to vaccine
- moderate-severe illness with or without fever
preemie infants are given according to what age- corrected or actual?
how long of an interval between immunizations?
how long should you wait before doing a PPD after a live vaccine? why?
4-6 weeks. will produce a false negative
vaccine administration injection sites?
- vastus lateralis (for infants & toddlers lacking deltoid mass)
- deltoid (toddlers, children, adults)