cardiovascular system med term

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mattnjaneal
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175019
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cardiovascular system med term
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2012-10-02 14:27:16
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cardiovascular system medical terminology
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  1. aneurysm
    localized dilation of a blood vessel wall (usually an artery) due to a congenital defect or weakness in the vessel wall
  2. angina pectoris
    mild to severe pain or pressure in the chest caused by ischemia; also called angina
  3. arrhythmia
    irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat; also called dysrhythmia
  4. fibrillation
    irregular, random contraction of heart fibers that commonly occurs in the atria or ventricles of the heart and is usually described by the part that is contracting abnormally, such as atrial fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation
  5. arteriosclerosis
    thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of arterial walls; also called hardening of the arteries
  6. atherosclerosis
    most common form of arteriosclerosis caused by accumulation of fatty substances within the arterial walls, resulting in partial and, eventually, total blockage
  7. bruit
    soft blowing sound heard on auscultation caused by turbulent blood flow
  8. embolus
    mass of undissolved matter (commonly a blood clot, fatty plaque, or air bubble) that travels through the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel
  9. heart block
    disease of the electrical system of the heart, which controls activity of heart muscle
  10. first-degree heart block
    atrioventricular (AV) block in which the atrial electrical impulses are delayed by a fraction of a second before being conducted to the ventricles
  11. second-degree heart block
    AV block in which only some atrial electrical impulses are conducted to the ventricles
  12. third-degree heart block
    AV block in which no electrical impulses reach the ventricles; also called complete heart block (CHB)
  13. heart failure (HF)
    condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the metabolic requirement of body tissues; formerly called congestive heart failure (CHF)
  14. hypertension (HTN)
    consistently elevated blood pressure, causing damage to the blood vessels and, ultimately, the heart
  15. ischemia
    inadequate supply of oxygenated blood to a body part due to an interruption of blood flow
  16. mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
    structural abnormality in which the mitral (bicuspid) valve does not close completely, resulting in a backflow of blood into the left atrium with each contraction
  17. murmur
    abnormal sound heard on auscultation caused by defects in the valves or chambers of the heart
  18. myocardial infarction (MI)
    necrosis of a portion of cardiac muscle caused by partial or complete occlusion of one or more coronary arteries; also called heart attack
  19. patent ductus arteriosus
    failure of the ductus arteriosus (which connects the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch in a fetus) to close after birth, resulting in an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta
  20. raynaud disease
    severe, sudden vasoconstriction and spasm in fingers and toes followed by cyanosis after exposure to cold temperature or emotional stress; also called raynaud phenomenon
  21. rheumatic heart disease
    streptococcal infection that causes damage to the heart valves and heart muscle, most commonly in children and young adults
  22. stroke
    damage to part of the brain due to interruption of its blood supply caused by bleeding within brain tissue or, more commonly, blockage of an arterry; also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
  23. thrombus
    a stationary blood clot formed within a blood vessel or within the heart, commonly causing vascular obstruction; also called blood clot
  24. deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
    formation of a blood clot in a deep vein of the body, occurring most commonly in the iliac and femoral veins
  25. transient ischemic attack (TIA)
    blood supply to part of the brain is briefly interrupted but does not cause permanent brain damage and may be a warning sign of a more serious and debilitating stroke in the future; also called ministroke
  26. cardiac catheterization
    insertion of a small tube (catheter) through an incision into a large vein, usually of an arm (brachial approach) or leg (femoral approach), that is then threaded through a blood vessel until it reaches the heart
  27. cardiac enzyme studies
    battery of blood tests performed to determine the presence of cardiac damage
  28. echocariography (ECHO)
    ultrasound technique used to image the heart and evaluate how the heart's chambers and valves are working and to diagnose and detect pathological conditions
  29. electrocardiography (ECG)
    creation and study of graphic recordings (electrocardiograms) produces by electric activity generated by the heart muscle; also called cariography
  30. holter monitor
    monitoring device worn by a patient that records prolonged electrocardiograph readings (usually 24 hours) on a portable tape recorder while the patient conducts normal daily activities
  31. stress test
    electrocariography (ECG) taken under controlled exercise stress conditions (typically using a treadmill) while measuring oxygen consumption
  32. nuclear stress test
    ECG that utilizes a radioisotope to evaluate coronary blood flow
  33. troponin I
    blood test that measures protein released into the blood by damaged heart muscle (not skeletal muscle) and is a highly sensitive, specific indicator of recent myocardial infarction (MI)
  34. angioplasty
    surgery that opens a blocked artery by inflating a small balloon within a catheter to widen and restore blood flow in the artery
  35. coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
    angioplasty in which peripheral vein(s) are removed and each end of the vein is sutured onto the coronary artery to create new routes around narrowed and blocked arteries, allowing sufficient blood flow to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle
  36. cardioversion
    restoration of normal heart rhythm by applying an electrical countershock to the chest using a device called a defibrillator; also called defibrillation
  37. defibrillator
    device used to administer a defibrillating electric shock to restore normal heart rhythm
  38. automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD)
    surgically implanted electrical device that automatically detects and corrects potentially fatal arrhythmias by delivering low-energy shocks to the heart; also called implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)
  39. automatic external defibrillator (AED)
    portable computerized device that analyzes the patient's heart rhythm and delivers an electrical shock to stimulate a heart in cardiac arrest
  40. endarterectomy
    surgical removal of the lining of an artery
  41. carotid endarterectomy
    removal of plaque (atherosclerosis) and thromboses from an occluded carotid artery to reduce the risk of stroke
  42. endovenous laser therapy (EVLT)
    treatment of large varicose veins in the legs in which a laser fiber is inserted directly into the affected vein to heat the lining within the vein, causing it to collapse, shrink, and eventually disappear; also called endovenous laser ablation (EVLA)
  43. sclerotherapy
    chemical injection into a varicose vein that causes inflammation and formation of fibrous tissue, which closes the vein
  44. valvuloplasty
    insertion of a balloon catheter in a blood vessel in the groin through the aorta and into the heart to widen a stenotic (stiffened) heart valve and increase blood flow; also called percutaneous valvuloplasty
  45. anticoagulants
    prevent the clotting or coagulation of blood
  46. beta blockers
    slow the heart rate and reduce the force with which the heart muscle contracts, thereby lowering blood pressure
  47. nitrates
    relieve chest pain associated with angina and ease symptoms of heart failure (HF)
  48. statins
    reduce cholesterol levels in the blood and block production of an enzyme in the liver that produces cholesterol
  49. thrombolytics
    dissolve blood clots in a process known as thrombolysis
  50. coronary artery disease (CAD)
    condition that involves narrowing of the coronary arteries, resulting in failure of the arteries to deliver an adequate supply of oxygenated blood to the heart muscle (myocardium).  Narrowing of arterial walls (arteriostenosis) usually caused by atherosclerosis, which is a common form of arteriosclerosis.  CAD causes the ordinarily smooth lining of the artery to become roughened as the atherosclerotic plaque collects in the artery.  This accumulation causes partial and, eventually, total blockage (occlusion) of the artery.
  51. varicose veins
    Normal veins have healthy (competent) valves.  The venous walls are strong enough to withstand the lateral pressure of blood exerted on them.  Blood flows through competent valves in one direction, toward the heart.  In varicose veins, also known as varicosities, dilation of veins from long periods of pressure prevents complete closure of the valves.  Unhealthy or damaged (incompetent) valves do not close completely.  The incompetent valves result in a backflow and pooling of blood in the veins.  This pooling causes varicosites that contribute to enlarged, twisted superficial veins, called varicose veins.  They commonly appear blue, bulging, and twisted.  If left untreated, varicos veins can cause aching and feelings of fatigue as well as skin changes.  Because the blood pools, the risk of thrombosis is increased as well.  Treatment consists of sclerotherapy and such surgical intervention as EVLA of the greater saphenous (large) veins in the legs and dmicrophlebectomies of the lesser saphenous (small) veins. 

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