Chemistry 30S

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Yuki11r
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175026
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Chemistry 30S
Updated:
2012-10-02 15:06:20
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Chemistry 30S exam
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October exam 1 of 3
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  1. Matter
    Anything that has mass or takes up sapce
  2. Mass
    The amount of matter in something
  3. Volume
    The amount of space something occupies.
  4. Property
    A characteristic of a substance that can be observed
  5. Physical Property
    A property that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance
  6. Examples of physical propertys
    • Diffusion
    • Malleability
    • Compressibility
    • Melting point
    • Boiling point
    • Density
    • Solubility
    • Specific heat
  7. Chemical Property
    A property that can only be abserved by changing the substance's composition.
  8. Examples of chemical propreties
    • Flammability
    • Ability to rust
    • Reactivity with acids or bases
  9. Chemical Changes
    Changes that produce a new kind of matter with different properties are chemical reactions (Rx).

    Changes in which the chemical composition of the matter is changed.
  10. After a chemical reaction
    Products have different properties than reactants.

    i.e.

    • NaCl : Salt
    • Na - explosive metal
    • Cl2 - Poisonous gas
  11. After aa physical Change
    Alter (after the change) a substance without changing it's composition: no new molecules are formed.


    ex: grinding, crushing, breaking, changes of state.
  12. Changes of state
    Involves either the addition or removal of energy

    • Endothermic
    • Exothermic
  13. Endothermic
    Rx that takes up heat which speeds up particles
  14. Exothermic
    Rx that give up heat thus slowing particles
  15. Changes of state 
    Endothermic
    Melting (liquification, fusion)

       Solid + heat --> liquid

    Evaporation (vaporization)

      Liquid + heat --> gass
  16. Changes of state 
    Exothermic
    Freezing (solidification) 

     Liquid - heat --> solid

    • Condensing 
    •  
    •  Gas + Heat --> liquid
  17. Sublimation
    Skipping the liquid phase step in the changes of state
  18. Sublimation
    Endothermic
    • No liquid state
    •  
    •  Solid + heat --> gas
  19. Sublimation
    Exothermic
    No liquid step 

    gas - heat --> solid
  20. Density Calculations
    D = m/V =g/mL = g/cm3
  21. Crystalline
    having the structure and form of a crystal
  22. amorphous
    without a clearly defined shape or form
  23. Kinetic Molecular Theory
    • All matter is compoused of particles in constent motion.
    • -gas particles move the fastest with elastiic collisions.
  24. Temperature
    The degree or intensity of heat in a substance or object
  25. How does definiton of temperature corresponds to the KMT?
    The higher the temperature the faster particels move

    The lower the temparature the slower particles move 
  26. Kinietic energy in states of matter
    • Highest kinetic energy is in gas
    • Lowest kinetic energy is in solid
  27. Connection between KMT and absolute zero?
    There is no movement of particles at absloute zero (-273oC)
  28. Absolute zero
    The lowest theoreticly possible temperature at which motion of particles that consititutes heat would be minimal.
  29. Why is the Kelven temperature scale refferd to as the absolute temperature scale?
    No negitive temperatures, absolute value.
  30. Heat
     A form of energy associated with the motion of atoms or molecules and capable of being transmitted through solid and fluid media by conduction, through fluid media by convection, and through empty space by radiation.
  31. difference between heat and temperature?
    Temperature is a number. That number is related to energy, but it is not energy itself.

    -number that is related to the average kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance.

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