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What processes do hormones control?
- Growth and Development
- Body defenses
- Regulates Metabolism
What do hormones do?
Regulate the activity of other cells.
What are the 3 types of hormones?
- Amino-Acid Based
3 Examples of Amino-Acid Based hormones:
What are steroids made of?
What are Prostaglandins made of?
Highly active lipids.
How do steroid hormones operate?
- Enters cell and nucleus.
- Make new protiens
How do Non-Steroid hormones work?
- Binds to membrane receptor.
- Does not enter cell
What are the 3 types of Endocrine Gland hormone release?
- Hormonal - By other hormones
- Humoral - Ions levels
- Neural - Nerve impulses - sympathetic nervous system
What protects the pituitary gland?
What are the 2 functional lobes of the pituitary gland?
- Anterior pituitary - glandular tissue
- Posterior pituitary - nervous tissue
What are the 6 hormones released by the anterior pituitary gland?
- Growth Hormone (GH)
- Prolactin (PRL)
- Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
- Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
- Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
- Lutanizing Hormone (LH)
What are the characteristics of of all anterior pituitary hormones?
- Act through second messenger systems
- Regulated by hormonal stimuli
What is Growth Hormone (GH), and how does it work?
Metabolic hormone that effects growth, builds protien and breaks down fat.
What does the hormone Prolactin (PRL) do?
- Stimulates and maintains milk production following childbirth
- Its function in males is unknown.
What is Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)?
Regulates endocrine activity of the adrenal cortex.
What is Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)?
Influences growth and activity of the thyroid.
What is Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)?
Stimulates follicle development in ovaries, and sperm development in males.
What is Luteinizing Hormone (LH)?
- Triggers ovulation
- Causes ruptured follicles to become the corpus luteum
- Stimulates testosterone production in males
What is Interstitial Cell-Stimulating Hormone (ICSH)?
The equivalent of LH in males, controls testosterone production.
What are the hormones of the Posterior Pituitary?
- Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) - sometimes called vasopressin
What does Oxytocin do?
- Stimulates contractions of the uterus during labor
- Causes milk ejection
What does Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) do?
- Can inhibit urine production
- In large amounts, causes vasoconstriction, leading to increased blood pressure
How is the Thyroid gland constructed?
Consists of 2 lobes, with a connecting "isthmus"
What 2 hormones does the Thyroid gland produce?
- Thyroid Hormone
What is thyroid hormone composed of?
- Thyroxine (T4)
- Triiodothyronine (T3)
What is Calcitonin and what does it do?
- An antagonist hormone to parathyroid hormone
- Produced by C cells
- Decreases blood calcium levels by causing its deposition on bone
What does parathyroid hormone do?
- Raise calcium levels in blood
- Stimulate kidneys and intestines to absorb more calcium
- Stimulate osterclasts to remove calcium from bone
What are the 2 parts of the Adrenal Glands?
- Cortex - outer glandular region - has 3 layers.
- Medulla - inner neural tissue region.
What are the 3 hormones of the Adrenal Cortex?
- Sex Hormones
Where are mineralcorticoids produced?
Outerlayer of the adrenal cortex.
What does mineralocorticoids do?
(water balance & blood pressure)
What is the target organ of mineralocorticoids?
What does Aldosterone do?
Causes the kidneys to absorb more salt and water, causing increased blood pressure and volume.
What is the stress hormone in the body?
What are Glucocorticoids?
Hormone produced in the middle layer of the adrenal cortex.
What do Glucocorticoids do?
- Promote normal cell metabolism
- Help resist long-term stressors
When are Glucocorticoids released?
In response to increased blood levels of ACTH
What are sex hormones?
- Androgens (male)
- Estrogen (female)
Where are the sex hormones produced?
The inner layer of the adrenal cortex
What are the hormones of the Adrenal Medulla?
- Epinephrine (Adrenaline)
- Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline)
What do the hormones of the Adrenal Medulla do?
Prepare the body to deal with short-term stress
What are pancreatic islets?
The parts of the pancreas that produces hormones.
What hormones are produced by the pancreas and what do they do?
- Maintain blood sugar homeostasis
What is Insulin?
(Drives sugars into the cells)
What is Glucagon?
(Forces sugar out of the cells, into the blood)
What is the Pineal Gland?
Gland found on the 3rd ventricle of the brain, housed within the epithalamus.
What does the Pineal Gland do?
Secretes Melatonin to regulate the body's sleep/wake cycles.
What does the Thymus do?
Produces Thymosin, which is important to the development of the immune system.
What are the hormones of the Ovaries?
Where in the ovaries is Estrogen produced?
Grafian Follicles and the placenta
What are the 5 functions of Estrogen?
- Development of secondary female characteristics
- Helps prepare the uterus for the fertilized egg
- Helps maintain pregnancy
- Prepares breasts for milk production
- Matures the female reproductive organs
Where in the ovaries is Progesterone produced?
What does Progesterone do?
What are the hormones of the testes?
Where in the testes are hormones produced?
What does testosterone and other androgens do?
- Adult male secondary sex characteristics
- Matures male reproductive system
- Required for sperm cell production
What are some "other" areas of the body that produce hormones?
- Small Intestive
- Scattered throughout the body