Anatomy Chapter 4

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andreakristin807
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175050
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Anatomy Chapter 4
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2012-10-02 17:00:17
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anatomy exam two
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Tissue Level of Organization
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  1. histology
    anatomy of tissues
  2. 4 major tissue types
    • epithelial
    • connective
    • muscular
    • nervous
  3. basal lamina
    basmement membrane in which epithelial tissue lies on
  4. epithelial tissue is:
    a) vascular
    b) avascular
    • epithelial tissue is:
    • a) vascular
    • b) avascular - no direct blood supply
  5. epethelial functions
    • -protection againsst abrasion, dehydration, toxins 
    • -barrier for absorption 
    • -sensation reception (triggers nervous system) 
    • -forms glands
  6. 2 types of glands
    • 1. endocrine
    • 2. exocrine
  7. endocrine gland
    secretes chemical product directly into the blood stream (hormones)
  8. exocrine gland
    secretes chemical product into ducts (mucus, sweat, oil)
  9. methods of secretion
    • a) merocrine secretion
    • b) apocrine secretion
    • c) holocrine secretion
  10. merocrine secretion
    (majority!) secretion by exocytosis - the cells remain intact. (example: salivary glands)
  11. exocytosis
    cell directs the contents of secretory vesicles out of the cell membrane and into the extracellular space
  12. apocrine secretion
    apical portion of the cell accumulates product then pinches off - some cytoplasm is lost by the cell. (example: axillary perspiration)
  13. holocrine secretion
    accumulation of chemical product throughout entire cell - cell ruptures and dies. [example: sebum (oil)]
  14. exocrine gland shapes
    • tubular:
    • alveolar/acinar:
  15. exocrine gland arrangements
    • simple - all epithelial cells share a single duct
    • branched - several areas share a common duct
    • compound - repeated division of ducts
  16. 3 epithelial cell shapes
    • squamous
    • cuboidal
    • columnar
  17. squamous epithelial cells
    thing and flat shape - located in the skin, membranes, lining of blood vessels
  18. cuboidal epithelial cells
    cube (box) shape - located in ducts and glands
  19. columnar epithelial cells
    tall and thin - located in digestive tract
  20. 4 epithelial cell arrangements
    • simple - one layer of cells
    • stratified - more than one layer of cells
    • pseudostratified - one layer, but due to uneven shape, looks like more than one layer
    • transitional - more than one layer, capable of stretching and changing shape
  21. connective tissue is:
    a) vascular
    b) avascular
    cells are spaced apart by an intercellular matrix (non-living ground substance) - connective tissue is capable of regeneration (with good blood supply)

    • a) vascular - direct blood supply
    • b) avascular
  22. 5 connective tissue functions
    • 1. provides body framework - overall body shape and structure (bones and cartilage)
    • 2. provides physical protection (bones of ribs, skull)
    • 3. storage - primarily lipids (adipose) and calcium
    • 4. transportation - blood circulation carries to/from body cells
    • 5. defense - white blood cells in immune system fight biological agents
  23. 3 classifications of connective tissue
    • connective tissue proper
    • fluid connective tissue
    • supporting connective tissue
  24. connective tissue proper
    fibroblasts secrete a thick matrix containing collagen fibers, reticular fibers, and elastic fibers.
  25. collagen fibers
    long, unbranched bundles of fibers
  26. reticular fibers
    branched interwoven network of fibers
  27. elastic fibers
    branched and wavy (to allow for stretching)
  28. 2 types of elastic fibers
    • -loose conective tissue proper - used as packing material
    • -dense connective tissue proper - used as binders
  29. 2 types of dense connective tissue proper
    • a) regular - fibers are parallel
    • b) irregular - fibers form a mesh
  30. 2 types of fluid connective tissue
    • 1. blood - formed elements in plasma (white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets)
    • 2. lymph - collected interstitial fluid that works with immune system
  31. 2 types of supporting connective tissue
    • 1. cartilage
    • 2. bone/osseous
  32. cartilage
    firm gel matrix formed by chondrocytes (cartilage cells) in lacunae (small spaces within the ground matrix)
  33. 3 types of cartilage
    • hyaline
    • elastic
    • fibrocartilage
  34. hyaline cartilage
    (majority) - loose collagen creates a smooth, rubbery matrix (nose)
  35. elastic cartilage
    high numbers of elastic fibers makes this extremely flexible (ears)
  36. fibrocartilage
    dense collagen network creates a tough, durable matrix (joints)
  37. bone/osseous tissue
    firm but flexible matrix of collagen (for flexibility) and calcium salts (for strength) secreted by osteocytes.
  38. osteocytes
    mature bone cells
  39. fascia
    thin, papery layers that stabilize and maintain the positions or organs and muscles - framework of connective tissue
  40. superficial fascia
    located between skin and underlying organs - makes up the subcutaneous layer
  41. deep fascia
    surrounds organs and muscles by forming "capsules" around them - interconnecs muscles to bones and other muscles
  42. subserous fascia
    located between serous membrane and depp fascia preventing body wall distortion when moving
  43. types of membranes
    • mucous membranes
    • serous membranes
    • cutaneous membranes
    • synovial membranes
  44. mucous membranes
    line cavities that are open to the exterior, secrete mucus producing epithelium on lamina propria
  45. serous membranes
    line cavities that are sealed
  46. pleura
    serosa around the lungs
  47. perituneum serosa
    around the abdominal organs
  48. pericardium
    serosa around the heart
  49. cutaneous membranes
    "the skin" (the only dry membrane)
  50. synovial membranes
    cover articulations and secrete synovial fluid to reduce friction (joints)
  51. muscle tissue
    cells that cause movement - specialized for contractions
  52. sarcoplasm
    muscle cell cytoplasm
  53. sarcolemma
    muscle cell plasma membrane
  54. 3 types of muscle tissue
    • skeletal muscle
    • cardiac muscle
    • smooth muscle
  55. skeletal muscle appearance and function
    • cylindrical shaped cells that pull on bones
    • striated appearance (branched)
    • each fiber is multinucleate 
    • voluntary muscles
  56. cardiac muscle appearance and function
    • located only in the heart 
    • cylindrical and branched
    • striated and involuntary muscle 
    • uninucleate 
    • connections occur at intercalated disks (dark bands)
  57. smooth muscle
    • located in walls of blood vessels, around hollow organs of digestive tract 
    • spindle shaped cells
    • non-striated and involuntary muscle 
    • uninucleate
  58. nervous/neural tissue
    capable of generating electricity for fast communication
  59. neurons
    nervous tissue cells
  60. neuroglial
    physically surround and support the neurons "assistants"
  61. nerves
    bundles of neurons

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