Anatomy Chapter 6

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Author:
andreakristin807
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175087
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Anatomy Chapter 6
Updated:
2012-10-02 19:22:21
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anatomy exam two
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Skeletal Structure
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  1. average # of bones in the adult body
    206
  2. 5 functions of the skeletal system
    • 1. support - support body weight, provide overall body structure
    • 2. storage - minerals and lipids
    • 3. synthesis - bone marrow produces blood cells
    • 4. protection - physical "armor" protects and encases organs
    • 5. leverage - work together with muscles to maintain body position and to produce controlled movements
  3. 2 forms of osseous tissue
    • compact bone
    • spongy bone
  4. compact bone
    dense and homogenous; shaft - diaphysis
  5. spongy bone
    porous; ends of bones - epiphysis - lighter weight makes overall bone movement easier.
  6. trabeculae
    struts found in spongy bone the provide internal support
  7. bone marrow
    • -yellow bone marrow
    • -red bone marrow
  8. yellow bone marrow
    found within the medullary cavity of compact bone - adipose (fat) storage
  9. red bone marrow
    found in spongy bone - blood stem cell
  10. 6 types of (major) bone shape
    • 1. long bones
    • 2. short bones
    • 3. flat bones
    • 4. irregular bones
    • 5. sesamoid bones
    • 6. sutural bones
  11. long bones
    bones are longer than they are wide - ex. arms, legs, hands
  12. ephiphyseal plate
    growth zone in long bones
  13. short bones
    bos-like - ex. carpals and tarsals
  14. flat bones
    thin, parallel surfaces - ex. skull, sternum, ribs
  15. irregular bones
    complex shapes - ex. vertebrae, facial bones
  16. sesamoid bones
    flattened within tendons - ex. patella (knee cap)
  17. sutural bones
    aka wormian - jigsaw border between flat bones of the skull - ex. cranial bones
  18. calcium phosphate
    compound that composes almost 2/3 of the weight of bone
  19. compression strength of bones comes from the formation of...
    hydroxyapatite crystals
  20. allows for the bending and twisting of bone...
    collagen fibers
  21. 4 types of bone cells
    • 1. osteoprogenitor cells
    • 2. osteoblasts
    • 3. osteocytes
    • 4. osteoclasts
  22. osteoprogenitor cells
    stem cells that divide to produce daughter cells that become osteoblasts
  23. osteoblasts
    produce new mone matrix in a process called osteogenesis
  24. ostecytes
    (majority) mature bone cells surrounded by solid matrix
  25. osteon
    basic functional unit of mature compact bone
  26. lacunae
    in an osteonosteocytes are found in lacunae
  27. lamellae
    concentric rings of lacunae
  28. canaliculi
    connects all living osteocytes through the matrix
  29. haversion canal
    hollow central canal surrounded by osteons that harbors blood vessels and nerves
  30. volkmann's canals
    perforating canals running perpendicular to the bone length
  31. periosteum
    superficial membrane that isolates and provides a circulatory route for vessels - connected to osseous tissue by Sharpey's fibers (outside)
  32. endosteum
    osteoprogenitor cells lining the medullary cavity and trebeculae (inside)
  33. growth hormone
    secreted by the pituitary gland - increases osteoBlast (build bone) activity for longer, stronger bones
  34. thyroxine
    hormone secreted by the thyroid gland increase osteoBlast activity
  35. sex hormones
    secreted by the ovaries and testes - increases osteoBlast activity
  36. PTH
    secreted by the thyroid - increases osteoClast activity (more Ca+in bloodstream)
  37. calcitonin
    secreted by the parathyroid - decreases osteoClast activity (less Ca++ in bloodstream)
  38. two methods of ossification:
    • 1. intrameembranous ossification
    • 2. endochondrial ossification
  39. intramembranous ossification
    bone develops from mesenchyme connective tissue, occurs in the deeper layers of the dermis - results in flat bones
  40. heterotopic bones
    bones form within muscles under stress
  41. endochondrial ossification
    majority - bones originate as hyaline cartilages (each cartilage is a miniature model of the bone). as cartilage at the epiphysieal plate continues to enlarge, the bone increases in length.
  42. fracture hematoma
    blood clot at fracture site
  43. closed fracture
    entirely internal
  44. open fracture
    penetrating thru skin
  45. Pott's fracture
    occurs at ankle - affects both bones of the leg
  46. comminuted fracture
    shatters area into a multitude of bony fragments
  47. transverse fracture
    break bone shaft across its long axis
  48. spiral fracture
    twisting stress causes along length of bone
  49. displaced fracture
    new and abnormal bone arrangements
  50. colles' fracture
    in distal portion of radius - caused by reaching to cushion fall
  51. greenstick fracture
    only one side of shaft is broken and the other is bent
  52. epiphyseal fracture
    occur a growth site
  53. compression fracture
    occurs in vertebrae subjected to extreme stress
  54. osteopenia
    inadequate ossification (bones are thin and weak)
  55. osteoporosis
    decrease in overall mass, leaves large, unsupported gaps - "brittle bones" (age related)
  56. osteomalacia
    softening as mineral content decreases
  57. osteomyelitis
    bacterial infection of the osseous tissue

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