7th day biopsych

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  1. examples of physical stimuli
    -wavelengths of light

    -sound waves


    -pressure, heat
  2. examples of psychological experiences

    -nirvana song

    -general tsos chicken

    -smell of a skunk

    -someone holding your hand
  3. Light is essential for vision...which means?
    without light there can be no visual perception
  4. light particles
  5. Light behaves both as a particle...
    photon and waves of energy
  6. What does amplitude mean?
  7. Whats the iris?
    -contractile tissue

    -dictates opening of the pupil
  8. In bright light the pupil...
  9. in dim light the pupil...
  10. Dilation of pupil- Sensitivity
    -larger the pupil size, the more light permitted in.

    • *normal circumstances is good for dimly lit environments
    • **increases sensitivity
  11. Dilation of pupil- Acuity
    • -In bright light, pupils contrict
    • * image is now sharper, more detailed
    • **Acuity is improved
  12. Opening of Iris- Sympathetic system
    activation leads to pupil dilation
  13. Opening of the Iris- Parasympathetic system
    activation leads to pupil contruction
  14. Atropine
    is an acetycholine receptor antagonist
  15. How do pupils contricts?
    acts via acetycholine receptor
  16. Peple under the influence of mushrooms..
    • have hard time focusing and seeing.
    • ** poor acuity
  17. Lens
    • focuses incoming light
    • **permitted in by the pupil
  18. Contraction of cillary muscle...
    • allows the lens to take its normal cylindrical shape
    • *in this position we are able to focus our vision on objects close
  19. When cillary muscle relaxes...
    • lens lay more flat
    • *able to focus our vison on objects close to us
  20. Retina
    contains the sense organs for vision
  21. Animals that have both eyes in front of their heads...
    can see depth much better than animals that have them on their sides
  22. BInocular disparity
    • difference in the position of the same image on the 2 retinas is greater for close objects than for distant objects
    • *helps us contruct a 3D image
  23. Retina composed of 5 layers of neurons
    • -receptors
    • -horizontal cells
    • -bipolar cells
    • -amacrine cells
    • -ganglion cells
  24. retina layers- Receptors
    • -light receptors
    • -located at the back of the retina
    • *not a NT
  25. retina layers- Horizontal cells
    commmunicate between receptors
  26. retina layers- Amicrane cells
    communicate between ganglion cells
  27. retina layers- Ganglion cells
    send information out of the eye and to the brain
  28. Problems of retina contrcution: Light is filtered throughout the neuronal cell layers to the receptors
    Solution: Fovea
  29. What is Fovea?
    • specialized area of the retina with a thinning of the retinal ganglion layer.
    • *area of hihg acuity
  30. Problem: how do axons exit out of the eye
    • blind spot
    • *visual system fills over the blank
  31. COmpletion
    visual system uses information from the receptors around the blind spot to complete broken images
  32. description of rods (4)
    -rod-mediated vision dominates in dim light

    -more sensitive to light than cones

    -poor acuity

    -referred as scotopic vision
  33. description of cones (4)
    -cone-mediated vision dominates in ample light

    -high acuity


    -referred as photopic vision
  34. Why dont we see the world with gray in the center?

    -temporal intefgration
  35. Rhodospin
    • absorbs light and when enough light hits rhodospin it bleaches into white.
    • *when light is turned off it turns back to red
  36. AP happen in order for....
    information to be passed
  37. 4 steps of rod in the dark
    • 1. Rhodospin molecules inactive
    • 2.sodium channels are kept open by cyclic GMP
    • 3. Soium ions flow inside, partially depolarizing the rod
    • 4.Rods continuously release Glutamate
  38. 4 processes of rods in light
    • 1.light bleaches rhodospin molecules
    • 2. as a result cGMP is broken down and sodium channels close
    • 3. sodium ions cannot enter rods, rodes become hyperpolarized
    • 4. glutamate release is blocked
  39. saccades
    fast movement of eye to move the fovea around and prevent gray spots

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7th day biopsych
2012-10-03 00:25:24

7th powerslide
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