Module 3

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Module 3
2012-12-10 18:11:10
Objective 21 24

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  1. What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
    • A
    • D
    • E
    • K
  2. Vitamin D is based on
  3. Vitamin A is synthesized from
    carotenes; carrots are high in carotenes; other foods that are rich in carotenes are yello or orange in color, such as squash and tomatoes
  4. The function of Vitamin E is not well-understood, but it is thought to protect
    cells from free radical damage
  5. What are the 3 major classes of lipoproteins?
    VLDL= very low density lipoprotein

    LDL= low density lipoprotein

    HDL= high density lipoprotein
  6. The higher the lipid content, the
    more bad the health effects are.
  7. The lower the lipid content, the
    more good it is on health effects
  8. VLDL is depositied in what tissue
    adipose tissue
  9. HDL is believed to exert a
    protective effect.
  10. HDL is increased by
  11. Lipoproteins differ in
    density, and are believed to have different effects on health.
  12. Lipid is less dense than
    water; that is why oil floats on water.
  13. The monomer that makes up proteins is an
    amino acid
  14. Small strings of amino acids are generally called
  15. Proteins are
    polymers of amino acids joined by dehydration synthesis
  16. What two functional groups on amino acids which participate in the formation of peptide bonds?
    • Amino Group
    • -NH2  (when uncharged)
    • -NH3+ (when charged)

    • Carboxyl Group
    • -COOH (when uncharged)
    • -COO- (when charged) ionized
  17. Explain the peptide bond as a form of dehydration synthesis
    Removing of two hydrogens and one oxygen to make water, a peptide bond results and binds the nitrogen to a carbon.
  18. Polymers of amino acids are formed through the
    peptide bond
  19. Two amino acids, one peptide bond
  20. Three amino acids, two peptide bonds
  21. Lots of amino acids, lots of peptiode bonds
  22. Anything larger that 3000 to 10,000 daltons molecular weight (30 to 100 amino acids) would be called
  23. Proteins are synthesized in a specialized cell machine called
  24. Enzymes called _________ or ___________ break peptide bonds by hydolysis
    peptidases; proteases
  25. The 20 amino acids all have one amino end and one carboxy end. The difference is in the
    R group
  26. R is just shorthand for
    a chemical grouping (can be simple or complex)
  27. What are oddball amino acids?
    • Small
    • Disulfide Bonds
    • Kinky
  28. Cysteine, with its -R group containing a sulfhydryl (-SH), forms
    Disulfide bonds
  29. What residues put hairpin turns (kinks) in a protein;s structure
  30. What are used for signaling molecules between cells?
    • Aspartate
    • Glutamate
    • Glycine