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What are the fat-soluble vitamins?
Vitamin D is based on
Vitamin A is synthesized from
carotenes; carrots are high in carotenes; other foods that are rich in carotenes are yello or orange in color, such as squash and tomatoes
The function of Vitamin E is not well-understood, but it is thought to protect
cells from free radical damage
What are the 3 major classes of lipoproteins?
VLDL= very low density lipoprotein
LDL= low density lipoprotein
HDL= high density lipoprotein
The higher the lipid content, the
more bad the health effects are.
The lower the lipid content, the
more good it is on health effects
VLDL is depositied in what tissue
HDL is believed to exert a
HDL is increased by
Lipoproteins differ in
density, and are believed to have different effects on health.
Lipid is less dense than
water; that is why oil floats on water.
The monomer that makes up proteins is an
Small strings of amino acids are generally called
polymers of amino acids joined by dehydration synthesis
What two functional groups on amino acids which participate in the formation of peptide bonds?
- Amino Group
- -NH2 (when uncharged)
- -NH3+ (when charged)
- Carboxyl Group
- -COOH (when uncharged)
- -COO- (when charged) ionized
Explain the peptide bond as a form of dehydration synthesis
Removing of two hydrogens and one oxygen to make water, a peptide bond results and binds the nitrogen to a carbon.
Polymers of amino acids are formed through the
Two amino acids, one peptide bond
Three amino acids, two peptide bonds
Lots of amino acids, lots of peptiode bonds
Anything larger that 3000 to 10,000 daltons molecular weight (30 to 100 amino acids) would be called
Proteins are synthesized in a specialized cell machine called
Enzymes called _________ or ___________ break peptide bonds by hydolysis
The 20 amino acids all have one amino end and one carboxy end. The difference is in the
R is just shorthand for
a chemical grouping (can be simple or complex)
What are oddball amino acids?
- Disulfide Bonds
Cysteine, with its -R group containing a sulfhydryl (-SH), forms
What residues put hairpin turns (kinks) in a protein;s structure
What are used for signaling molecules between cells?