Anatomy Lower extremety

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CamiLynn
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175119
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Anatomy Lower extremety
Updated:
2012-10-02 23:23:11
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Muscles
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OIAN for muscles of the lower limb
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  1. Sartorius
    • O: Anterior Superior iliac spine
    • I: Upper medial shaft of tibia
    • A: Assists in; flexion of femur
    •                     abduction of femur
    •                     lateral rotation of femur
    •                     flexion of knee
    •                     medial rotation of tibia when knee is flexed and foot is unweighted
    • N: Femoral
  2. Sartorius (description)
    Longest muscle in the body, it is the most superficial thigh muscle and forms the lateral border of the femoral triangle.  Its name is derived from the Latin word for tailor, sartor, to indicate its action of bringing the leg into a cross-legged sitting position.  Not a powerful muscle, it only assists in these actions.
  3. Piriformis
    • O: Pelvic surface of sacrum
    • I: Greater trochanter of femur
    • A: Lateral rotation of hip. Assist in abduction when the hip is flexed.
    • N: Sacral plexus
  4. Quadratus femoris
    • O: Tuberosity of ischium
    • I: Quadrate line
    • A: Lateral rotation of hip. Assist in adduction of hip joint.
    • N: Sacral plexus
  5. Gemellus superior
    • O: Spine of ischium
    • I: Greater trochanter of femur
    • A: Lateral rotation of hip. Assist in abduction when the hip is flexed.
    • N: Sacral plexus
  6. Obturator Internus
    • O: Internal or pelvic surface of obturator membrane and margin of obturator foramen
    • I: Greater trochanter of femur
    • A: Lateral rotation of hip. Assist in abduction when the hip is flexed.
    • N: Sacral plexus
  7. Gemellus inferior
    • O: Tuberosity of ischium
    • I: Greater trochanter of femur
    • A: Lateral rotation of hip. Assist in abduction when the hip is flexed.
    • N: Sacral plexus
  8. Obturator Externus
    • O: Rami of pubis and ischium and external surface of obturator membrane
    • I: Greater trochanter of femur
    • A: Lateral rotation of hip. Assist in adduction of hip joint.
    • N: Obturator
  9. Piriformis, Quadratus femoris, Obturator internus, Obturator externus, Gemellus superior, Gemellus inferior  (Six deep lateral rotators description)
    Lie deep to gluteus maximus and inferior to gluteus medius. The sciatic nerve lies between the rotators and piriformis and may be entrapped or compressed by piriformis.  The first letter in the words of the phrase "Piece Goods Often Go On Quilts" denotes the anatomical order of these muscles from superior to inferior (piece goods = fabric sold by the yard)
  10. Psoas Major
    • O: Lumbar vertebrae L1-5, transverse processes T12-L5 vertebrae - bodies and intervertebral discs
    • I: Lesser trochanter of femur
    • A: Flexion of femur, Flexion of trunk - lumbar spine, Assists lateral flexion of trunk - lumbar spine
    • N: L2-3 spinal ns
  11. Psoas Major (description)
    Not present in most people.  When present, it is a small muscle with a long tendon lying in front of psoas major, originating on the 12th thoracic vertebra, inserting on the pelvic rim, and innervated by L1
  12. Iliacus
    • O:Iliac fossa of ilium
    • I: Lesser trochanter of femur
    • A: Flexion of femur
    • N: Femoral
  13. Iliacus (description)
    Psoas Major and Iliacus are referred to as the iliopsoas because of their common insertion an action.  Iliopsoas is the strongest hip flexor.  If the femrs are fixed, these muscles flex the lumbar spine such as when doing a sit-up.
  14. Quadriceps Femoris Group
    Comprised of 4 large, anterior thigh muscles that insert below the knee and act to extend the knee.  The 3 vasti lie deep to rectus femoris and 2 (lateralis and medialis) have their origins on the posterior femur.
  15. Rectus Femoris
    • O: Anterior inferior iliac spine & ilium at upper rim of acetabulum
    • I: Patella & tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
    • A: Extension of knee and assists flexion of femur
    • N: Femoral
  16. Rectus Femoris (description)
    Only muscle in the quads that originates on the pelvis and crosses both the hip and knee joints.  Its combined actions bring the leg forward in walking.  When the insertion is fixed, rectus femoris extends the knee as seen in jumping.  The term rectus, is derived from Latin word for straight, depicting this muscle that runs straight down the femur
  17. Vastus Medialis
    • O: Linea aspera of femur & Intertrocanteric line of femur
    • I: Patella & Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
    • A: Extension of knee
    • N: Femoral
  18. Vastus Group (description)
    Latin term for immense. These 3 muscles of the quads derive their name from their size and position.  Vastus lateralis is the largest of the group.
  19. Vastus Lateralis
    • O: Linea aspera of femur & Greater trochanter of femur
    • I: Patella & Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
    • A: Extension of knee
    • N: Femoral
  20. Vastus Intermedius
    • O: Anterior and lateral femoral shaft
    • I: Patella & Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament
    • A: Extension of knee
    • N: Femoral
  21. Pectineus
    • O: Superior ramus of anterior pubis
    • I: Pectineal line of femur, inferiorto lesser trochanter
    • A: Flexion of femur, Adduction of femur, Assists medial rotation of femur
    • N: Femoral
  22. Adductor group (description)
    Includes medial thigh muscles that adduct the femur.  Adductor magnus, brevis, and longus assist in medial or lateral rotation of the femur, depending upon the starting position of the femur in extension or flexion.  Pectineus is the upper most muscle of the group.  Adductor magnus is the largest and deepest and most powerful of the group. Adductor brevis is superficial to adductor magnus and deep to adductor longus and pectineus.  Adductor longus is the most anterior of the adductors and gracilis is the most medial and weakest of the group.
  23. Pectineus (description)
    Only hip adductor supplied by the femoral nerve, a fact explained by it being considered an estension of the iliopsoas.  However, like other hip adductors, it is sometimes supplied by a branch of the obturator nerve.
  24. Adductor Longus
    • O: Anterior pubis - body, inferior to pubic crest
    • I: Linea aspera of femur - middle one third
    • A: Adduction of femur, assists flexion of femur
    • N: Obuturator
  25. Adductor Brevis
    • O: Anterior pubis - body and inferior ramus
    • I: Linea aspera of femur - proximal part, Pectineal line of femur
    • A: Adductor of femur, assists flexion of femur
    • N: Obturator
  26. Adductor longus and Adductor brevis (description)
    Adductor longus forms the medial border of the femoral triangle that contains the femoral nerve, artery, and vein. Adductor longus is referred to as the "long adductor" and adductor brevis as the "short adductor"
  27. Adductor Magnus
    • O: Anterior head - inferior ramus of pubis.
    •     Posterior head - ischial  tuberosity & ramus of ischium
    • I: Posterior head - Linea aspera of femur
    •    Anterior head - Adductor tubercle of femur
    • A: Addustion of femur
    •     Anterior head - assists flexion of femur and medial rotation of femur
    •     Posterior head - assists extension of femur and lateral rotation of femur
    • N: Anterior head - Obturator
    •     Posterior head - Sciatic
  28. Adductor Magnus  (description)
    The motions of the adductor magnus with its massive size and extensive attachments can vary depending upon which portion of the muscle is active and the starting position and direction of the movement of the femur.  At most, adductor magnus is an assistant in rotation.
  29. Gracilis
    • O: Inferior ramus of anterior pubis
    • I: Medial proximal tibia
    • A: Adduction of femur, assists flexion of knee and medial rotation of tibia when knee is flexed
    • N: Obturator
  30. Gracilis (description)
    Only muscle in the adductor group to cross the hip and knee joints.  The femoral shaft and the gracilis form the shape of the letter "V"
  31. Gluteus Maximus
    • O: Posterior sacrum, Ilium (via sacrotuberous ligament) and Posterior (superior) gluteal line of ilium
    • I: Gluteal tuberosity of femur and Iliotibial tract (attaching to lateral condyle of tibia)
    • A: Extension of femur and Lateral rotation of extended hip
    • N: Inferior Gluteal
  32. Gluteal Group (description)
    Greek for rump. The 3 gluteal muscles lie superficial to deep: gluteus maximus; gluteus medius; and gluteus minimus. Gluteus maximus is used mostly for power, as in going upstairs, rising from a sitting position, climbing or running rather than walking.  Similar to other lower extremity muscles, the gluteus maximus can move the femur against the pelvis (hip extension) or move the pelvis against the femur  (posterior pelvic tilt)
  33. Gluteus Medius
    • O: Ilias crest of ilium, Ilium - between posterior (superior) and anterior (middle) gluteal lines
    • I: Greater trochanter of femur
    • A: Abduction of femur
    •     anterior fibers do medial rotation of femur
    • N: Superior gluteal
  34. Gluteus Medius (description)
    When standing on one foot, gluteus medius contracts on that side to helf stabalize the pelvis and prevent it from tilting to the unsupported side. Paralysis of this muscle on one side results in the "gluteus medius limp" : the pelvis tilts towards the uninvolved side in walking.
  35. Gluteus minimus
    • O: Posterior ilium - between anterior (middle) and inferior gluteal lines
    • I: Anterior surface of greater trochanter of femur
    • A: Abduction and Medial rotation of femur
    • N: Superior gluteal
  36. Gluteus Minimus (description)
    Works with anterior portion of gluteus medius to steady the pelvis during ipsilateral weight-bearing
  37. Tensor Fasciae Latae
    • O: Iliac crest - posterior to anterior superior iliac spine
    • I: Iliotibial tract (attaches to the lateral condyle of the tibia
    • A: Assist in; flexion of femur, abduction of femur, medial rotation of femur, stability of extended knee in standing and ambulation & extension of knee
    • N: Superior gluteal
  38. Tensor Fasciae Latae (description)
    enclosed in fascia of the lateral thigh that extends as the iliotibial band to attach to the tibia.  When TFL conctracts, this tightens the fascia and helps stabilize the hip and knee joints.
  39. Biceps femoris (Long head)
    • O: Ischial tuberosity
    • I: Head of fibula - lateral aspect & Lateral condyle of tibia
    • A: Extension & Flexion of knee, Lateral rotation of tibia when knee is flexed
    • N: Sciatic - Tibial division
  40. Biceps femoris (Short head)
    • O: Linea aspera
    • I: Head of fibula - lateral aspect & lateral condyle of tibia
    • A: Flexion of knee & Lateral rotation of tibia when knee is flexed
    • N: Sciactic - Fibular division
  41. Semitendinosus
    • O: Ischial tuberosity
    • I: Anterior proximal tibial shaft
    • A: Extension of femur, Flexion of knee and Medial rotation of tibia when knee is flexed
    • N: Sciatic - Tibial division
  42. Semimembranosus
    • O: Ischial tuberosity
    • I: Posterior medial tibial condyle
    • A: Extension of femur, Flexion of knee and Medial rotation of tibia when knee is flexed
    • N: Sciatic - tibial division
  43. Hamstrings Group
    Biceps Femoris, Semitendinosus & Semimembranosus (description)
    Insert medially at the knee while the biceps femoris inserts laterally.  These insertions account for the medial rotation of the tibia by the semitendinosus and lateral rotation of the tibia by the biceps femoris.
  44. Popliteus
    • O: Lateral condyle of femur
    • I: Posterior proximal tibial shaft
    • A: Lateral rotation of the femur to "unlock" the extended knee to initiate knee flexion.  Assists medial rotation of tibia when knee is flexed
    • N: Tibial
  45. Function of Popliteus
    Lateral rotation of the femur to "Unlock" the extended knee to initiate knee flexion
  46. Popliteus (description)
    Deepest muscle on the posterior of the knee joint.  Because of its action in lateral rotation of the femur, popliteus is remembered as "the key that unlocks the knee". It is said to "reverse its origin and insertion", laterally rotating the femur on the tibia or medially rotating the tibia on the femur, depending upon which is fixed.
  47. Plantaris
    • O: Lateral epicondyle of femur
    • I: Calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
    • A: Assists plantarflexion of ankle and flexion of knee
    • N: Tibial
  48. Plantaris (description)
    Superficial on the posterior of the knee joint, lying between the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles.  It is the lower extremity counterpart of the palmaris longus of the hand and is absent in some persons.  Gastrocnemius, soleus and plantaris share a common insertion, the calcaneal tendon.
  49. Flexor Hallucis Longus
    • O: Posterior fibula
    • I: Distal phalanx of great toe - plantar surface
    • A: Flexion of great toe at MP joint and IP joint. Assists plantarflexion of ankle
    • N: Tibial
  50. Flexor Hallicus Longus (description)
    "Harry" of Tom, Dick and Harry calf muscles.  Flexor hallucis longus plays an important role in forward propulsion by flexing the big toe to push off the ground when walking and running.
  51. Flexor Digitorum Longus
    • O: Posterior tibia
    • I: Distal phalanges of 4 lateral toes - plantar surface
    • A: Flexion of 4 lateral toes at IP joints. 
    •     Assists flexion of 4 lateral toes at MP joints
    •     Assists plantarflexion of ankle
    • N: Tibial
  52. Flexor Digitorum Longus (description)
    "Dick" of Tom, Dick and Harry calf muscles. Comparable to the flexor digitorum profundus in the hand.
  53. Tibialis Posterior
    • O: Posterior tibia, Posterior fibula, Interosseous membrane
    • I: Navicular tarsal bone, Adjacent tarsals and metatarsals on plantar surface
    • A: Inversion of foot & Assists plantarflexion
    • N: Tibial
  54. Tibialis Posterior (description)
    "Tom" of Tom, Dick and Harry calf muscles.  Deepest of the three muscles.
  55. Soleus
    • O: Soleal line of tibia, Posterior head of fibula, Upper shaft of fibula
    • I: Calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
    • A: Plantarflexion of ankle
    • N: Tibial
  56. Soleus (description)
    Resembles the sole, a flat fish.  Deep to gastrocnemius, soleus is the stronger plantarflexor and is fatigue-resistant.  Together, the gastrocnemius and soleus are referred to as the triceps surae and are powerful plantarflexors of the ankle for raising the heel in running and jumping.
  57. Calcaneal Tendon
    Thick tendon of insertion of the triceps surae into the calcaneus, connecting the calf (soleus and gastrocnemius) muscles to the heel.  Strongest tendon in the body.
  58. Gastrocnemius
    • O: Medial head - Medial epicondyle of femur
    •     Lateral head - Lateral epicondyle of femur
    • I: Calcaneal tendon
    • A: Plantarflexion of ankle & Assists flexion of knee
    • N: Tibial
  59. Gastrocnemius (description)
    Gastro is Greek for belly.  Can act on the knee or the ankle seperately, but not simultaneously.  The "gastroc" raises the heel during running and jumping.
  60. Tibialis Anterior
    • O: Lateral condyle of tibia, Lateral shaft of tibia & Interosseous membrane
    • I: Base of 1st metatarsal - plantar surface, Medial cuneiform tarsal bone - plantar surface
    • A: Dorsiflexion of ankle & Inversion of foot
    • N: Deep fibular
  61. Tibialis Anterior (description)
    Strongest dorsiflexor of the ankle and enables the toes to clear the ground in ambulation.  Paralysis of the muscle causes foor drop. "Shin splints" result from overuse of this muscle.
  62. Extensor digitorum Longus
    • O: Lateral condyle of tibia, Proximal 2/3 of anterior shaft of fibula
    • I: Middle and distal phalanges of 4 lateral toes
    • A: Extension of 4 lateral toes at MP joints & Assists dosiflexion of ankle
    • N: Deep fibular
  63. Extensor Digitorum Longus (description)
    Comparable to the extensor digitorum in the hand and its tendons comprise the extensor expansion of the foot.
  64. Extensor Hallucis Longus
    • O: Anterior shaft of fibula, Interosseous membrane
    • I: Base of distal phalanx of the great toe
    • A: Extension of great toe at IP joint and MP joint & Assists dorsiflexion of ankle
    • N: Deep fibular
  65. Extensor Hallucis Longus (description)
    Comparable to the extensor pollicis longus in the hand
  66. Fibularis tertius
    • O: Anterior distal fibula (with extensor digitorum longus)
    • I: Base of 5th metatarsal
    • A: Eversion of foot & Assists dorsiflexion of foot
    • N: Deep fibular
  67. Fibularis tertius
    Considered to be a part of extensor digitorum longus.  Places the foot flat on the ground by raising the lateral border.  It contracts reflexively when the foot is over-inverted thus preventing ankle injury
  68. Fibularis Longus
    • O: Head and lateral shaft of fibula - upper 2/3
    • I: Base of first metatarsal - plantar surface, Medial cuneiform tarsal bone - plantar surface
    • A: Eversion of foot & Assists plantarflexion of ankle
    • N: Superficial fibular
  69. Fibularis Brevis
    • O: Lateral shaft of fibula - lower 2/3
    • I: Base of 5th metatarsal - lateral surface
    • A: Eversion of foot & Assists plantarflexion of ankle
    • N: Superficial fibular
  70. Fibularis Longus & Brevis (description)
    The action of the foot evertors (as well as invertors) is especially helpful when walking or running on uneven surfaces.  Sometimes the muscles "give out", and a sprained ligament can result.

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