Anatomy Chapter 9

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Anatomy Chapter 9
2012-10-02 20:00:11
anatomy exam two

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  1. articulations
    joints where two bones interconnect
  2. synarthroses
    strong, immovable joints
  3. sutures
    type of synarthrotic (immovable) joint - interlocking fibrous tissue (found in the skull)
  4. gomphosis
    type of synarthrotic (immovable) joint - periodontal ligament (holds teeth in socket)
  5. synchondrosis
    type of synarthrotic (immovable) joint - found at the epiphyseal plate between bone elements diaphysis and epiphysis
  6. synostosis
    (aka metopic suture) - type of synarthrotic (immovable) joint - complete fusion of skull bones
  7. amphiarthroses
    strong joints with limited mobility - more movement than synarthroses but stronger than synovial
  8. syndesmosis
    type of amphiarthrotic (strong, moveable) joint - long bones to parallel long bones, attached by ligaments
  9. symphysis
    type of amphiarthrotic (strong, moveable) joint - pad of fibrocartilage (vertebrae and pubic bones)
  10. diarthrosis/synovial
    freely moveable joints; contains large amounts of synovial fluid that fill and cushion the joint
  11. meniscus
    stabilization structure of diarthrotic joints - fibrocartilage between bones
  12. bursae
    form where a tendon or ligament rubs against other tissues, reduce friction and act as shock absorbers 
  13. ligaments
    connect bone to bone across joint
  14. dislocation
    (aka luxation) failure to stabilize, results in damage to cartilage and ligaments
  15. subluxation
    partial dislocation, less severe damage
  16. gliding joint
    one plane of motion - sliding (ex: wrist/ankle, clavicle/manubrium)
  17. hinge joint
    one plane of motion (ex: ulna/humerus)
  18. pivot joints
    one plane of motion - rotation (ex: spine/vertebrae)
  19. ellipsoidal joint
    two planes of motion - oval articulation [ex: radius/scaphoid (wrist/lower arm)]
  20. saddle joint
    two planes of motion - concave to convex (ex: thumb)
  21. ball and socket joint
    one plane of motion - complete rotation (ex: humerus/scapula)
  22. flexion
    decrease angle out of anatomical position (bend arm)
  23. extension
    increase angle (straighten arm)
  24. hyperextension
    extension past anatomical position
  25. adduction
    away from axis
  26. abduction
    towards axis
  27. pronation
    turns the wrist and hand to palm facing back
  28. supination
    turns the wrist and hand to palm facing forwards
  29. inversion
    sole of foot medially
  30. eversion
    sole of foot laterally
  31. dorsiflexion
    toes up
  32. plantar flexion
    toes down, heel up
  33. elevation
    body part moves superiorly (ex. shrug shoulders)
  34. depression
    body part moves inferiorly (ex: shrug shoulders)
  35. opposition
    thumb grasps palm
  36. lateral flexion
    spine flexes left and right
  37. shoulder joint
    • -ball and socket joint
    • -permits the greatest range of motion
    • -anterior and posterior surfaces are highly reinforced while the intferior surface is poorly reinforced
  38. elbow joint
    • -hinge joint that involves the humerus, radius, and ulna
    • -works like a door hinge, with limited range of motion
    • -very unstable
  39. hip joint
    • -sturdy ball and socket joint
    • -capable of flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction, and rotation
    • -very stable because it is an almost completely bony socket with a strong articular capsule, supporting ligaments, and muscular padding
  40. knee joint
    • -hinge joint
    • -transfers weight from the femur to the tibia
    • -permits flexion, extension, and limited rotation