BioFinal1a.txt

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Anonymous
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17515
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BioFinal1a.txt
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2010-05-03 14:20:17
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biology
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Biology
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  1. A covalent bond:
    may be polar or nonpolar depending on the atoms involved.
  2. Covalently bonded atoms with similar electronic negativities are:
    nonpolar.
  3. An atom becomes a cation if:
    it loses one or more electron.
  4. Which of the following atoms would most likely be involved in an ionic bond?
    sodium
  5. Which component becomes oxidized in the following chemical reaction? 4 Fe + 3 O2 ??2 Fe2O3
    iron
  6. Which component is the oxidizing agent in the following chemical reaction? 4 Fe + 3 O2 ??2 Fe2O3
    water
  7. The cohesiveness between water molecules is due largely to:
    hydrogen bonds.
  8. This characteristic of a molecule determines the ability of hydrogen bonds to form between it and hydrogen:
    An atom with a partial positive charge.
  9. Which characteristic of water makes the existence of pH possible?
    ionization
  10. A solution having a pH of 6 would:
    be slightly acidic.
  11. Which of the following would most likely form electrolytes in water?
    an organic compound
  12. Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic because:
    the covalent bonds between hydrogen and carbon are nonpolar.
  13. The chemical interactions of large organic molecules are largely determined by:
    their polar nature.
  14. A chemical reaction in which polymers are synthesized from their building blocks is called:
    condensation.
  15. Which of the following illustrates hydrolysis?
    the reaction of a fat to form glycerol and fatty acids
  16. Glucose dissolves in water because:
    it has polar hydroxyl groups that interact with polar water molecules.
  17. Which pair is correctly matched?
    pentose�glucose
  18. A carbohydrate energy storage molecule found in animal liver and muscle cells is:
    glycogen.
  19. What macromolecule is composed entirely of beta-glucose units?
    cellulose
  20. The hydrolysis of triacylglycerol will yield:
    three fatty acids and one glycerol.
  21. Which of the following statements concerning unsaturated fats is correct?
    They are generally liquids at room temperature.
  22. The major difference between a structural lipid, such as those in cell membranes, and a storage fat is the fact that the structural lipid:
    most commonly contains a polar phosphate.
  23. The primary difference between the amino acids commonly found in proteins is in their:
    R or variable groups.
  24. Which of the following is responsible for the alpha-helical structure of proteins?
    hydrogen bonds
  25. Proteins with alpha helical forms exhibit this property:
    elasticity
  26. This functional group forms cross bridges that help stabilize protein tertiary structure:
    sulfhydryl
  27. DNA most directly determines which _______ are made by a cell.
    polypeptides
  28. Which of the following statements best summarizes the differences between RNA and DNA?
    DNA comprises the genes, while RNA is a direct participant in the process of protein synthesis.
  29. When a nucleic acid undergoes hydrolysis, the resulting subunits are:
    nucleotides.
  30. ATP is important in living organisms because:
    it can transfer some of its energy to other chemicals.
  31. It is advantageous for cells to be small because:
    a small cell has a small volume relative to surface area, thereby increasing efficient transport.
  32. Electron microscopes have a much higher resolution than either the human eye or any light microscope because:
    of the very short (nanometer) wavelengths of electrons.
  33. The scanning electron microscope differs from the transmission electron microscope in that the scanning electron microscope:
    gives a three dimensional image of the object being studied.
  34. A eukaryotic cell:
    has a variety of membranous organelles.
  35. Membrane-bounded organelles facilitate faster chemical reactions because:
    reactants are within close proximity to each other.
  36. DNA is associated with proteins, forming a complex called:
    genes.
  37. Nucleoli contain chromosomal regions that specialize in making:
    RNA.
  38. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum:
    synthesizes lipids.
  39. Proteins made by ribosomes may be further modified within the:
    Golgi complex.
  40. The cis face of the Golgi complex is most directly involved in which of the following?
    accepting vesicles from the ER
  41. During an infection, white blood cells travel to the infected site and phagocytize the pathogens. After phagocytosis, primary lysosomes fuse with the phagocytic vesicle to form a larger vesicle called a secondary lysosome. The reason for this is:
    to mix the pathogens with strong hydrolytic enzymes and destroy them.
  42. The theory that chloroplasts and mitochondria had their evolutionary beginnings in eukaryotic cells as endosymbionts is supported by which of the following?
    chloroplasts and mitochondria have small ribosomes for protein synthesis.
  43. Which of the following organelles plays an important role in apoptosis, or programmed cell death?
    mitochondria
  44. A cellular structure found in plant but not animal cells is the:
    chloroplast.
  45. Which of the following is a key component of the cytoskeleton?
    microtubules
  46. You isolate a cellular structure and determine that it is composed of a-tubulin and �-tubulin. Based on this evidence, you correctly identify this structure as:
    an actin filament.
  47. The force necessary to cause microtubules of cilia and flagella to slide alongside one another is provided through the action of _________ proteins, which derive the energy to perform their work directly from ______ molecules.
    dynein; ADP
  48. As a result of testing an experimental drip on a vertebrate cell, you notice that the cell cortex becomes more fluid, and although the cell remains strong, it loses its ability to move. Based on this evidence, you correctly conclude that the drug most directly affected:
    myosin.
  49. The structures in the micrograph are:
    cilia.
  50. Which of the following is/are located between the primary walls of adjacent cells?
    middle lamella

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