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An atom is made up of?
- -Protons +
- -Electrons -
Where are the Protons and Neutrons located?
What does the Proton number indicate?
Indicates the Atomic number or Z number
The number of Protons and Neutrons indicate?
Where is the Electrons located?
Located in shells or energy levels around the nucleus
What does it mean If an electron is close to the nucleus?
The more tightly it is bound
The study of the diagnostic use of ionizing radiation
A tool used to make a diagnosis
- 3 example
Any radiation with sufficient energy to remove an orbital electron from the atom that it interacts with.
- - X-rays,
- - Gamma Rays
- - Ultraviolet light
The number if proton in the nucleus of an atom is equal to?
Equal to the number of electron
Atoms are electrically neutral, what happen if the atom gains or loses an electron?
the atom becomes either negative or positively charged
Name three natural environmental radiation and provide example.
Cosmic rays: Emitted by sun and stars
- -Uranium: found in the Earth
- -Radon: gas produced by the natural decay of Uranium
- -Is the largest source of natural radiation
- -Concrete, bricks, gypsum board
- -Internally deposited radionuclides
- -Natural metabolites; have always been with us.
- -Results in an annual dose of approx. 300 mrem
What is a mad made radiation?
X-ray and results in an annual dose of 60-65 mrem
What is mA?
- 75 mA = 75/1000 = .075
What is mAs?
The product of milliamperage and time (s).
-Correspond to the number of x-rays created on the x-ray tube
what is kV?
-UNit used for electric potential and electromotive force.
-kilo = 1000
-75kV = 75000 volts
- the penetrating power of the beam
Measure of the ionization produced in air by x-rays
Define: Absorbed dose
The amount of energy per unit mass absorbed by an irradiated object
Define: Equivalent dose
- The product of the absorbed dose in a tissue or organ and its associated radiation weighting factor (W )
Define: Effective dose
- The measure of the overall risk of exposure to ionizaing radiation. Take into effect the type of radiation and its (W ) and the organ
- exposed and its weighting factor (W ).
What is the Customary unit and SI unit for exposure?
- CU= name:Roentgen symbol: R
- SI= name: Air kerma symbol: Gy
What is the CU and SI units for absorbed dose?
- CU= name: RAD symbol: RAD
- SI= name: Gray symbol: Gy
What is the CU and SI units for Effective dose?
- CU= name: REM symbol: REM
- SI= name: Sievert symbol: Sv
CU units SI units
- R x .01 = Gy
- RAD x .01 = Gy
- REM x .01 = SV
Express the mathematical relationship between similar quantities
Expresses the relationship of one ratio to another.
- Direct proportion: if A is high, B is high.
- Indirect proportion: if A is high, B is low.
Name two examples of Particulate Ionizing Radiation.
- - Alpha radiation: -mass # of 4
- - +2
- - emitted from nucleus of heavy metals
- - short range in matter
- - sever damage w/in the body
- - Beta radiation: -Mass # of 10
- - (-)1
- - Emitted from nucleus of radioactive atom
- - more penetrating in matter
Name two examples of Electromagnetic of Ionizing radiation.
- - Gamma radiation: -mass # of 10
- -no charge
- -emitted from nucleus of radioisotope
- - have unlimited rage in matter
- - X-rays: - Mass # of 0
- - no charge
- - Originates in energy levesl surrounding atom
- - Have unlimited range in matter
Electromagnetic Radiation: Photons in relation to Electromagnetic Radiation.
- Photon:-the smallest quantity of EM radiation
- -Travel at the speed of light
- - AKA: quantum
- - unit of measure: volt: in radiology, it is kilovolt. 1kV= 1000 volts
- -photons surround by electrical and magnetic fields called sine waves
- - The # of crests or valleys that pass an observer per unit of time; the rise and fall of sine wave
- - Measured in cycles/sec. : unit of measure is Hertz. 1Hz = 1 cycle/sec
- - The distance from one crest to another or one valley to another.
- - unit of measure is meter
Frequency and wave length are ____ proportional.
- - inversely
- ex: As frequency increases wavelength will decrease
It is 1/2 the range from crest to valley
What happens to wavelength when frequency is high?
wavelength will be short or low
Photon E is ____ proportional to the frequency of its wavelngth.
An x-ray beam of great penetrating power consists of photons that have:
- -high energy
- -high frequency
- -short wavelength