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a testable prediction about the relationship between 2 or more variables
replicate an original study
modify an existing study
Ways to arrive at a Hypothesis
Improve a study's ___ ___ by using the double-blind technique.
both participants and research assistants are unaware of which treatment is being presented
variables that intensify, weaken, or reverse relationships
Resolve contradictions in a study by looking for ___ ___.
states that there is NO relationship between the variables being tested
Beware of trying to prove the ___ ___. Just because a relationship has not been found, does not mean that one does not exist.
The ___ for our hypothesis can come from theory.
a set of principles that explain existing research findings
independent variable - variable that is being manipulated
the dependent variable
input / output
By manipulating the ___ variable, we affect the behavior observed in the ___ variable.
If a relationship between variables is too studied, look for a ___ variable
variable that describes what happens neurologically in response to an independent variable
shows the extent to which changes in levels of one variable correspond to changes in another variable
judge the title,
read the abstract,
read the entire article
Choosing research articles
- how the authors came up with their hypothesis
- why they think the hypothesis will be supported
The INTRODUCTION is the most important section; because ___
ensures that the manipulation is the only variable that changes between treatment conditions
finds differences when differences DO exist.
More ___ makes a new study superior
The ___ ___ tells us what the researchers DID:
- - basic descriptive STATS
- - results of Manipulation Check
- - how the results RELATE to the Hypothesis
The ___ ___ related the results to the "big" picture
- - Real World
- - Theory
- - Future Research
To test a hypothesis, we need a clear set of ___ regarding how we will measure our variables.
Directions for measuring variables are ___ ___
Because psychology is a ___, we develop ___ observable ways in which to measure ___ variables.
Measuring ___ accurately is a challenge when our hypothesis includes an ___ construct
Behavior that can be measured
We must precisely control behavior during testing (i.e. ___, ___, ___)
bias / random error
2 types of measurement error
errors vary systematically, pushing scores in one direction
unsystematic, not pushing scores in any particular direction
- averages out to zero
To ensure that the testing environment remains constant we must use ___ ___.
The Hawthorne Effect
when the treatment group changes their behavior - not because of the treatment itself, but because they know they are getting special treatment
Social Desirability Bias
participants want to look good, so they present themselves differently, thus creating a ___ ___ bias
Along with validity, our measures must have ___.
stable / consistant / random
A reliable measure produces ___ ___ scores, unaffected by ___ error
To measure reliability, we calculate a measure's test-retest ___ ___.
observers / ratings
We can correct for observer error by adding ___ and comparing their ___.
correcting for observer error by adding observers and comparing their ratings
We can add to our measure's ___ ___ by rewording or eliminating unclear questions.
characteristics of the study that suggest to the participant how the researcher wants the participant to behave