PSY 240 CH 3-5

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PSY 240 CH 3-5
2012-10-02 23:15:30
Research Hypothesis Evaluating Measuing Manipulating Variables

Research Hypothesis,Evaluating, Measuing/Manipulating Variables
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  1. Hypothesis
    a testable prediction about the relationship between 2 or more variables
  2. replicate an original study

    modify an existing study
    Ways to arrive at a Hypothesis
  3. construct validity
    Improve a study's ___ ___ by using the double-blind technique.
  4. Double-Blind Technique
    both participants and research assistants are unaware of which treatment is being presented
  5. Moderator Variable
    variables that intensify, weaken, or reverse relationships
  6. moderator variables
    Resolve contradictions in a study by looking for ___ ___.
  7. Null Hypothesis
    states that there is NO relationship between the variables being tested
  8. null hypothesis
    Beware of trying to prove the ___ ___.  Just because a relationship has not been found, does not mean that one does not exist.
  9. rationale
    The ___ for our hypothesis can come from theory. 
  10. Theory
    a set of principles that explain existing research findings
  11. Input Variable
    independent variable - variable that is being manipulated
  12. Output Variable
    the dependent variable
  13. input / output
    By manipulating the ___ variable, we affect the behavior observed in the ___ variable.
  14. mediating
    If a relationship between variables is too studied, look for a ___ variable
  15. Mediating Variable
    variable that describes what happens neurologically in response to an independent variable
  16. Linear Regression
    shows the extent to which changes in levels of one variable correspond to changes in another variable
  17. judge the title,

    read the abstract,

    read the entire article
    Choosing research articles
  18. - how the authors came up with their hypothesis

    - why they think the hypothesis will be supported
    The INTRODUCTION is the most important section; because ___
  19. Experimental Design
    ensures that the manipulation is the only variable that changes between treatment conditions
  20. Power
    finds differences when differences DO exist.

    More ___ makes a new study superior
  21. results section
    The ___ ___ tells us what the researchers DID:

    • - basic descriptive STATS
    • - results of Manipulation Check
    • - how the results RELATE to the Hypothesis
  22. discussion section
    The ___ ___ related the results to the "big" picture

    • - Real World
    • - Theory
    • - Future Research
  23. directions
    To test a hypothesis, we need a clear set of ___ regarding how we will measure our variables.
  24. operational definitions
    Directions for measuring variables are ___ ___
  25. science


    Because psychology is a ___, we develop ___ observable ways in which to measure ___ variables.
  26. behavior
    Measuring ___ accurately is a challenge when our hypothesis includes an ___ construct
  27. Verbal behavior

    Overt actions

    Nonverbal Behavior

    Physiological Responses
    Behavior that can be measured
  28. conditions


    We must precisely control behavior during testing (i.e. ___, ___, ___)
  29. bias / random error
    2 types of measurement error
  30. Bias
    errors vary systematically, pushing scores in one direction
  31. Random Error
    unsystematic, not pushing scores in any particular direction

    - averages out to zero
  32. standardized measures
    To ensure that the testing environment remains constant we must use ___ ___.
  33. The Hawthorne Effect
    when the treatment group changes their behavior - not because of the treatment itself, but because they know they are getting special treatment
  34. Social Desirability Bias
    participants want to look good, so they present themselves differently, thus creating a ___ ___ bias
  35. reliability
    Along with validity, our measures must have ___.
  36. stable / consistant / random
    A reliable measure produces ___ ___ scores, unaffected by ___ error
  37. reliability coefficient
    To measure reliability, we calculate a measure's test-retest ___ ___.
  38. observers / ratings
    We can correct for observer error by adding ___ and comparing their ___.
  39. Interobserver Reliability
    correcting for observer error by adding observers and comparing their ratings
  40. internal consistency
    We can add to our measure's ___ ___ by rewording or eliminating unclear questions.
  41. Demand Characteristics
    characteristics of the study that suggest to the participant how the researcher wants the participant to behave