Biology Test 1

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michaelirby98
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175196
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Biology Test 1
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2012-10-09 01:49:34
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biology101 cells digestion
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Bio 101
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  1. What is science?
    The understanding of how things function through discovery

    A. Use the scientific method to understand and explore; Observing, recording and analyzing measurements is key

    B. Use scientific tools to further our scientific investigations
  2. What is biology?
    It is the study of life and its processes
  3. What is the Cell Theory?
    Supported by Pasteur’s experiment on spontaneous generation and that all living things observed under the microscope are made of at least one or more cells.

    knowledge of scintific cell structure took a giant leap forward 
  4. Is a virus a living thing?
    Technically no, it can only live if it infects a living thing and uses that to reproduce, and connot reproduce on its own.

    Genes in a box
  5. Domain Archea:
    • Prokaryotic, single organism .
    • Either linked lipids in cell membrane.
    • Histone protien in cell menbrance

    Tend to live in harsh environments 
  6. Domain Bacteria:
    • Prokaryotic, single celled organism
    • Either- linked lipids in in cell membrane 
    • LACK histone in protien

    Includes: Mycoplasmas, cyanobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria.
  7. Domain Eukaraya 
    • Eukaryotic cell, single or mulitcellular 
    • Contains a nucleus, double-stranded DNA

    Eukaraya are subdivided into four kingdoms: Protista, fungi, plantae, animallia
  8. Kingdom Protista
    Organisms that are not plants, fungi, or animals

    ie. Brown alge, diatoms, dinoflagellates, red alge, paramecium euglena
  9. Kingdom Plantae
    Have cell wall with cellulose and chloroplasts (not all are photosynthetic, but have accessory pigment)

    ie. mosses, ferns, gymnosperms(cone plants), and Angiosperms (flowering plants)
  10. Kingdom Fungi
    • Have cell wall with chitin
    • Reproduce with spores and gamates(sex cell)
    • All are heterotrophic (cannot make its own organic food and must obtain them by consuming other organisms or organic products/ decomposer)

    ie. Mushrooms, mold, yeast
  11. Kingdom Animalia
    • Have no cell wall
    • All are heterotrophic 

    ie. All animals
  12. 4 basic parts of a cell
  13. Membrane
    • DNA
    • Cytoplasm 
    • Structure 
  14. What are the two main types of cells?
    Prokaryote and Eukaryote 
  15. Prokaryote cells
    A type of cell lacking a nucleus and other organelles. Prokaryotic cells are only found in domain Bacteria and Archaea
  16. Eukaryotic cell
    Is subdivided by internal membranes into different  functional compnents ie. nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus ect
  17. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    One of the main maufacturing facilities within a cell and produces many molecules

    Made up of the Smooth ER and Rough ER
  18. Rough ER
    • Contains ribosomes that make the protien for the cell
    •  Therefore the Rough ER is the site of protien sysnthesis
    •  (then send to the Golgi Apparatus through vacules)
  19. Smooth ER
    • Makes lipids and cerbohydrates (then sends to the Glogli Apparatus through vacules) 
    • Dextox the cell

    Have no ribosomes
  20. Golgi Apparatus 
    Recieves molecules from the ER then, refines, stores, and distributes chemical products of the cell.

    Transports to other parts of the cell and outside the cell
  21. Ribosomes
    • Are responsible for protien systhesis
    • They then remain in the fluid of the cell or attache to the ER the secrected by the cell
  22. Nucleus
    • An atoms central core, containing protons and nutrons 
    • The genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell ( contains DNA)
  23. Lysosomes
    • A sac of digestive enzymes found only in animal cells.
    • Developed from vesicles that bud off the Golgi
    • Break down molecules such as protiens, fats, and nucleic acid
  24. Mitochondria 
    • Responsible for cellular respiration
    • Make energy(ATP) from sugars and other food molecules
    • Found in almost all Eukaryotic cells
  25. Cytoskeleton 
    • A network of fibers, made from diferent protiens extending throughout the cytoplasm. 
    • Serves as the skeleton and the "muscle" for the cell, function in support and movement. 
  26. Chloroplast
    • An organelle found in plants and photsynthetic protists. 
    • It absorbs sunlight and uses it to power photosynthesis
    • Contain stroma ( thick fluid subtance in the chloroplast)
    • Contain grana (chloroplast solar packs), trap light energy and convret it to chemical energy
  27. Mitosis 
    The nucleus and its contents, including the duplicated chromosomes, divide and are evenly distributed forming two daughter nuclei.
  28. Cytokinesis
    • The cytoplasm is divided into two. 
    • The combination of mitosis and cytokinesis is the mitotic phase and creates two genetically identical cells
  29. Square Cube Law
    As the cell increases the volume increases at a faster rate then the surface area. (Surface are to volume ratio decreases)
  30. Phospholipid Bilayer
    • The combination of phospholipids(two tailed fats) to create a membrane around the cytoplasm
    • Allows certain molecules to enter and exit 
    • Has free floating protien to help regulate traffic across the membrance
  31. What is used to transport molecules against their concentration gradient? 
    ATP ( active transport )
  32. Osmosis 
    The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
  33. Solute 
    A substance that is dissolved in a liquid solvent

    ie. Salt in salt water
  34. Hypertonic
    A solution with a higher solute concentration 

    ie. more salt then water. Water will flow out of the cell to balance the level.
  35. Hypotonic
    A solution with lower solute

    ic. water will flow in because water concentration outside is higher
  36. Exocytosis
    When cells export molecules through transport vesicles the fuse with the plasma membrane, spilling contents outside of the cell.
  37. Endocytosis
    When cell inports molecules from outside to inside using vesicles

    ie. cellular eating 
  38. Protons
    A subatomic particle with a single (+) charge
  39. Electron
    A subatomic particle with a (-) charge
  40. Neutron
    Is electrically neutral and has no charge
  41. Atomic number
    The number above the element 

    Equals the number of protons
  42. Mass number
    The number below the element

    Equals the number of protons and neutrons 
  43. What is the difference between Atoms and Isotopes
    Isotopes have the same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons which change the atomic mass.
  44. How to determine the reactivity/stabability of an atom?
    Test the radiation it emmits
  45. Ionic vs Covalent bonds
    Ionic Bond: The attraction between oppositley charged ions. ie. If one element strips another element of their atom, one becomes positvely charged and one becomes (-) charged

    • Covalent Bond: Forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of outer shell electrons. Much stronger then ionic bonds
  46. Water is made up of....
    • 2 Hyrdogen and 1 oxygen. 
    • Creates a strong hydrogen bond
    • Strong hydrogen bond is responsible for waters high specific heat index and cohesion (surface tension)
  47. Temp effects on water
    • Heat must first break down the strong hydrogen bonds before it begins to boil
    • when temp is reduced it causes the atoms to spread apart 
  48. pH info
    • pH- Potential hydrogen 
    • Higher H+ becomes more acidic/lowers pH
    • Lower H+ becomes more basic/raises pH
    • Buffers substances that minimize change by accepting the H+ when too high and donating H+ when depleted.

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