Biology Test 1
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Biology Test 1
biology101 cells digestion
What is science?
The understanding of how things function through discovery
A. Use the scientific method to understand and explore;
Observing, recording and analyzing measurements is key
B. Use scientific tools to further our scientific investigations
What is biology?
It is the study of life and its processes
What is the Cell Theory?
Supported by Pasteur’s experiment on spontaneous generation and that all living things observed under the microscope are made of at least one or more cells.
knowledge of scintific cell structure took a giant leap forward
Is a virus a living thing?
Technically no, it can only live if it infects a living thing and uses that to reproduce, and connot reproduce on its own.
Genes in a box
Prokaryotic, single organism .
Either linked lipids in cell membrane.
Histone protien in cell menbrance
Tend to live in harsh environments
Prokaryotic, single celled organism
Either- linked lipids in in cell membrane
LACK histone in protien
Includes: Mycoplasmas, cyanobacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and Gram-negative bacteria.
Eukaryotic cell, single or mulitcellular
Contains a nucleus, double-stranded DNA
Eukaraya are subdivided into four kingdoms: Protista, fungi, plantae, animallia
Organisms that are not plants, fungi, or animals
ie. Brown alge, diatoms, dinoflagellates, red alge, paramecium euglena
Have cell wall with cellulose and chloroplasts
(not all are photosynthetic, but have accessory pigment)
ie. mosses, ferns, gymnosperms(cone plants), and Angiosperms (flowering plants)
Have cell wall with chitin
Reproduce with spores and gamates(sex cell)
All are heterotrophic (cannot make its own organic food and must obtain them by consuming other organisms or organic products/ decomposer)
ie. Mushrooms, mold, yeast
Have no cell wall
All are heterotrophic
ie. All animals
4 basic parts of a cell
What are the two main types of cells?
Prokaryote and Eukaryote
A type of cell lacking a nucleus and other organelles. Prokaryotic cells are only found in domain Bacteria and Archaea
Is subdivided by internal membranes into different functional compnents
ie. nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus ect
One of the main maufacturing facilities within a cell and produces many molecules
Made up of the Smooth ER and Rough ER
Contains ribosomes that make the protien for the cell
Therefore the Rough ER is the site of protien sysnthesis
(then send to the Golgi Apparatus through vacules)
Makes lipids and cerbohydrates
(then sends to the Glogli Apparatus through vacules)
Dextox the cell
Have no ribosomes
Recieves molecules from the ER then, refines, stores, and distributes chemical products of the cell.
Transports to other parts of the cell and outside the cell
Are responsible for protien systhesis
They then remain in the fluid of the cell or attache to the ER the secrected by the cell
An atoms central core, containing protons and nutrons
The genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell ( contains DNA)
A sac of digestive enzymes found only in animal cells.
Developed from vesicles that bud off the Golgi
Break down molecules such as protiens, fats, and nucleic acid
Responsible for cellular respiration
Make energy(ATP) from sugars and other food molecules
Found in almost all Eukaryotic cells
A network of fibers, made from diferent protiens extending throughout the cytoplasm.
Serves as the skeleton and the "muscle" for the cell, function in support and movement.
An organelle found in plants and photsynthetic protists.
It absorbs sunlight and uses it to power photosynthesis
Contain stroma ( thick fluid subtance in the chloroplast)
Contain grana (chloroplast solar packs), trap light energy and convret it to chemical energy
The nucleus and its contents, including the duplicated chromosomes, divide and are evenly distributed forming two daughter nuclei.
The cytoplasm is divided into two.
The combination of mitosis and cytokinesis is the mitotic phase and creates two genetically identical cells
Square Cube Law
As the cell increases the volume increases at a faster rate then the surface area. (Surface are to volume ratio decreases)
The combination of phospholipids(two tailed fats) to create a membrane around the cytoplasm
Allows certain molecules to enter and exit
Has free floating protien to help regulate traffic across the membrance
What is used to transport molecules against their concentration gradient?
ATP ( active transport )
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
A substance that is dissolved in a liquid solvent
ie. Salt in salt water
A solution with a higher solute concentration
ie. more salt then water. Water will flow out of the cell to balance the level.
A solution with lower solute
ic. water will flow in because water concentration outside is higher
When cells export molecules through transport vesicles the fuse with the plasma membrane, spilling contents outside of the cell.
When cell inports molecules from outside to inside using vesicles
ie. cellular eating
A subatomic particle with a single (+) charge
A subatomic particle with a (-) charge
Is electrically neutral and has no charge
The number above the element
Equals the number of protons
The number below the element
Equals the number of protons and neutrons
What is the difference between Atoms and Isotopes
Isotopes have the same number of protons and electrons but different number of neutrons which change the atomic mass.
How to determine the reactivity/stabability of an atom?
Test the radiation it emmits
Ionic vs Covalent bonds
Ionic Bond: The attraction between oppositley charged ions.
ie. If one element strips another element of their atom, one becomes positvely charged and one becomes (-) charged
: Forms when two atoms share one or more pairs of outer shell electrons.
Much stronger then ionic bonds
Water is made up of....
2 Hyrdogen and 1 oxygen.
Creates a strong hydrogen bond
Strong hydrogen bond is responsible for waters high specific heat index and cohesion (surface tension)
Temp effects on water
Heat must first break down the strong hydrogen bonds before it begins to boil
when temp is reduced it causes the atoms to spread apart
pH- Potential hydrogen
Higher H+ becomes more acidic/lowers pH
Lower H+ becomes more basic/raises pH
Buffers substances that minimize change by accepting the H+ when too high and donating H+ when depleted.