NCEA Level 3 Geography Natural Landscapes

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NCEA Level 3 Geography Natural Landscapes
2012-10-03 06:05:50
NCEA Level Geography Natural Landscapes Tongariro

NCEA Level 3 Geography Natural Landscapes
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  1. Plant Succession 
    The orderly sequence of development of plant community whiach takes place in a given environment. Each previous community provides the necessary conditions for the next to "take over".
  2. Climax Vegetation
    An area perfectly adjusted to the cilmate, soil and drainage conditions are found there. Beech Forest. The ultimate plant community fo this region will contain examples from all other stages too. 
  3. Bare Earth
    • May be caused by a variety of volcanic process.
    • Lava Eruptions
    • Pyroclastic Flow
    • Lahar
  4. Bare Earth Example
    Mangatapopo Valley lava flows
  5. Moss and Lichen
    • 1. Colony plants
    • 2. Retains moisture/heat
    • 3. Traps fine wind bourne sediments
    • 4. Able to extract minerals from the rock surfaces.
    • 5. Carries out chemical weather which erode the rock and add to the soil formation.
    • 6. Creates pockets of soil
    • 7. Adds to organic matter
    • 8. Acts as a seed bed for the next community which gradually begins to replace it.
  6. Moss and Lichen Example
    Matweed: Raolia 
  7. Alpine Herbfield
    • Continued soil formation: 
    • 1. Continue to trap water/wind bourne sediments 
    • 2. Adds to organic matter
    • 3. Protect surface from denudation
  8. Alpine Herbfield Examples
    • Caprosma
    • Mountain Daisy
    • Harebells
    • Snow Berry 
  9. Close Tussock Association
    • Fine, upright leaf structures that allow wind to pass through. 
    • Is ideally suited to ash soils. 
  10. Close Tussock Association Examples
    • Bristle Tussock
    • Red Tussosck
  11. Tall Scrub Association
    Allows development of deeper soils through protective canopy and roots and the addition of 'leaf litter' 
  12. Tall Scrub Association Examples
    • Dacrophyllum Recuvum
    • Bogpine
    • Ihaka
    • Turpentine Bush
  13. Climax Vegetation Example
    Beech Forest
  14. Three types of Magma
    • Basic Magma
    • Intermediate Magma
    • Acidic Magma
  15. Basic Magma Characteristics
    Hot, liquid, dark coloured, rich in Fe and Mg witho about 45% Si content.
  16. Intermediate Magma Characteristics
    Intermediate in thickness, colour and mineral content with about 55% Si content.
  17. Acidic Magma Characteristics
    Thick, Light coloured, Gaseous with about 75% Si content. 
  18. Basic Magma Location
    Deep below the crust. Spreading/subduction margins. 
  19. Intermediate Magma Location
    In an intermediate position. Subduction margins
  20. Acidic Magma Location
    Close to the surface. Subduction Margin. 
  21. Basic Magma Rock Type
  22. Intermediate Magma Rock Type
  23. Acidic Rock Type