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The orderly sequence of development of plant community whiach takes place in a given environment. Each previous community provides the necessary conditions for the next to "take over".
An area perfectly adjusted to the cilmate, soil and drainage conditions are found there. Beech Forest. The ultimate plant community fo this region will contain examples from all other stages too.
- May be caused by a variety of volcanic process.
- Lava Eruptions
- Pyroclastic Flow
Bare Earth Example
Mangatapopo Valley lava flows
Moss and Lichen
- 1. Colony plants
- 2. Retains moisture/heat
- 3. Traps fine wind bourne sediments
- 4. Able to extract minerals from the rock surfaces.
- 5. Carries out chemical weather which erode the rock and add to the soil formation.
- 6. Creates pockets of soil
- 7. Adds to organic matter
- 8. Acts as a seed bed for the next community which gradually begins to replace it.
Moss and Lichen Example
- Continued soil formation:
- 1. Continue to trap water/wind bourne sediments
- 2. Adds to organic matter
- 3. Protect surface from denudation
Alpine Herbfield Examples
- Mountain Daisy
- Snow Berry
Close Tussock Association
- Fine, upright leaf structures that allow wind to pass through.
- Is ideally suited to ash soils.
Close Tussock Association Examples
- Bristle Tussock
- Red Tussosck
Tall Scrub Association
Allows development of deeper soils through protective canopy and roots and the addition of 'leaf litter'
Tall Scrub Association Examples
- Dacrophyllum Recuvum
- Turpentine Bush
Climax Vegetation Example
Three types of Magma
- Basic Magma
- Intermediate Magma
- Acidic Magma
Basic Magma Characteristics
Hot, liquid, dark coloured, rich in Fe and Mg witho about 45% Si content.
Intermediate Magma Characteristics
Intermediate in thickness, colour and mineral content with about 55% Si content.
Acidic Magma Characteristics
Thick, Light coloured, Gaseous with about 75% Si content.
Basic Magma Location
Deep below the crust. Spreading/subduction margins.
Intermediate Magma Location
In an intermediate position. Subduction margins
Acidic Magma Location
Close to the surface. Subduction Margin.
Basic Magma Rock Type
Intermediate Magma Rock Type
Acidic Rock Type