# Experimental Methods T1

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1. Four Basic Canons of Science
• Determinism: Events have meaningful, systematic causes.
• Empiricism: The method of making observations. (Making observations is the best method.)
• Parsimony: If we have two competing theories, we should choose the simpler or more frugal of the two.
• Testability: You must be able to realistically test the theory (involves Validation, Falsification & Qualification).
2. Quasi-Experiment
Naturally occurring grouping variable, but analyzed like an experiment.
3. Independent variables vs. grouping variables
• Variable that is manipulated by experimenter
• In a Quasi-experiment, called the grouping variable (GV)
4. Scales of Measurement: NOIR
•  Nominal: – Numbers are names only, no real order.
• – Use Frequencies and Chi-Square

• Ordinal:– rank ordered, but don’t know how far apart scores are.
• – Use nonparametric statistics

•  Interval:– Tells how far apart values are, but no true 0 point. Equal interval between units.
• – Can use ANOVA

•  Ratio: – like interval but with a true 0 point
• – Can use ANOVA
5. Descriptive Statistics
• Measures of Central tendency: Mean, median, mode
• Measures of Variability: Range, variance, standard deviation
• Range is the difference between the largest and smallest value
• Variance is the average squared deviation of each score from the mean
• Standard deviation is the square root of the variance.
6. Formulas 7. Type I and Type II errors
Type I error: a true null hypothesis is rejected (false positive)

Type II error: Failing to regect a false null (false negative)
8. Factors, levels, and between/within- subjects
designs
• Factors: # of IVs
• Levels: Treatment conditions PER IV
• Between/Within Group: Between- People are in different groups. Within- People test out all groups and compare to self.
9. Generalizability
• Statistical generalizability: Allows you to generalize to the population from which you randomly selected.
• Practical generalizability: You can generalize to similar individuals (i.e., college students)
• Situational Generalizability: Can findings from the lab be applied to real life? How is the research setting different from other settings? How were the variables (IV’s & DV’s) operationalized?
10. Grouping variable
• Typically categorical
• Male, female
• 1, 2, 3, 4
• etc
 Author: Anonymous ID: 175214 Card Set: Experimental Methods T1 Updated: 2012-10-03 09:39:28 Tags: Scientific Experiments Folders: Description: Experimental Method and Design test 1 Show Answers: