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The content and impact of public policy is affected by how it is implemented. Name 5 Groups that have significant influence on admininistrative politics.
- The Chief executive
- The courts
- Other Governments
- Other administrative agencies
- Interest groups
- political parities
Name four groups that influence policy implementation.
- The bureaucratic agency tasked with implementation
- Pressure groups
- Community organizations
What is the most important way that the courts involve themselves in policy implementation
From their iterpretation of statutes and administrativer decisions in cases brought before them
Explain the term bureaucratic decretion
Because of ambigiguity in policy language legislatures often give wide latitude to bureaucratic agencies in rules and implementing of legislative policy
Explain the bottom-up analysis of policy implementation
The analysis of interior or lower level bureaucratic personnel and their involvement in the implementation of legislative policy.
There are three theories of decision making that emphasize the procedures and intellectual activites involved in policy adoption. What are they and briefly explain each
- Rational Comprehensive theory- Based on the economist view of rational decision making, it contains the reasoned process of policy identification, objective identification alternatives are consideres and cost are computed. Finally decision makers choose the alternative and it's consequences that best attain the identified objectives.
- Incremental Theory-is the more often used theory. It involves limited changes or additions to existing policies. Frequently is ongoing and is essentially remedial.
- Mixed Scanning-Mixed scanning uses both rational comprehensive and incremental theories that are blended. This draws on the strengths of each theory while avoiding their shortcomings.
Define a governmental budget.
A budget is a spending plan adopted by government that becomes a policy document reflecting major policy values and priorities.
What are entitlemental programs and what is their effect on the budgetting process
Entitlements are programs that require funding each year without review by lawmakers. because they are established by law they obligate large amounts of money that are no longer available for lawmakers to use during the budget of discretionary funds
Many governmental agencies are required to submit multiyear strategic plans in order to determine policy impact and to evaluate their effectivness. What are the four addressed in these strategic plans
- Annual performance goals for agencies and their major programs
- Measures used to guage performance
- resources and strategies required to achieve performance goals
- The procedures that will be used to verify and validate performance information.
What is the most important requirement necessary in putting public policy into effect?
What is benefit analysis
A formal quantative evaluation technique that requires identifying the cost and benfits of either a proposed or actual policy and translating them into a monetary values for the purpose of comparison
What comprices a policy agenda
Those problems among many that recive the serious attention of public officals
In political systems theory, explain elite theory
Policies that reflect the values of a governing elite such as elected officals and CEO's.
Legislatures are very involved in making policy. There are support structures that assist the elected legislators in their policy decisions. Who are these people?
- Personal staff
- Committees and subcommittees
- institutional staff
- local/national special intrest groups
How is political culture passed from one generation to the next
Through the socialization process
When policies are addopted, agencies use three rules to implument them. What are these and explain
- Substantive rules-fill in the details of policies and have the force and effect of law
- Interpretive rules-how the agencies views or interprets the laws ans enforces them
- Procedural rules-decribes the agencies organization and how it will conduct activites
Policies may effect situations other than those at which they are directed. what is this called?
- Third party effect
- Spillover effect
When a new policy is enacted, complince is the primary responsibility of
The most common style of decision-making in the american political system is bargaining.Explain
Barganining is the process in which two or more people in positions of power or athority adjust their inconsistent goals in order to formulate a course of action acceptable to both sides but not ideal for everyone involved.
The text gives five criteria that influnce policy choices. Name four
- personal values
- organizational values
- professional values
- policy values
- ideological values