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2012-10-03 13:23:25

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  1. Biological views
    • sturm und drang
    • sprial growth patterns
  2. Psychoanalytical and psuchosocial views
    • frued- individuation
    • defnes mechanism
    • ego identity
  3. cognitive views
    • piaget - adaptation and equilibrium
    • vygotski- socil influcesn on cognition
  4. social leanrin view
    • social learning thoery
    • social cognitive thoery
  5. cultural impact son ads
    • deveopmental tasks
    • field thiery
    • ecological system thuery
    • Marageter mead- anthropogoical views
  6. sturm und dang
    sotmr and stress- sued to descrive the violatile adolescent temperment
  7. Sturm aund drang- bilogical view
    belived ads. are on an emotional seesaw- after moving through the animnal, hunter and svagery stages of infancy, childhoos and preadolscene respectively.
  8. Sprial growth patterns
    bellived that genes dtermine the order of appearence of behavioral traits and deveopmental trends. This cnocept implies biological dterminism that prevnts teacher  parents ect from infleuncing human devopment
  9. sigmund frued- individuation
     a period of sexual excitment, anxiety and sometime personaliti disturbances. Had fourstages- the oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital stage.
  10. oral stage
    the firts stage of frueds thoery usually goes from birth to 1 year during which the childs cheif source of pleasure and staifiction comes from oral activity.
  11. anal stage
    the second stage in frueds during the 2nd year of flife during which the child seeks pleasure and satisfaction through anal activity an the elmination of waste
  12. phallic stage
    the3rd stage of frued about ages 4-6 during which the genital area is the chief source of pleasure and satisfaction
  13. latency stage
    4th stage of frued 6-12 during which sexual interest remain hidden whitl the child concentrates on school and other activities
  14. genital stage
    the last stage in frued which is when sexual urges result in seeking other persons as sexual objects to relive sexual tenision
  15. oedipal complex
    from freud- the idea that boys become jealous of thier mothers attention otward thier fathers- boys fear that fathers will try to remove them as sexual rivals which is called castration anxiety.
  16. identification-
    • the taking on of aperntal values, beliefs and behaviors.
    • it services two functions- it reduces castration anxiety and teaches boys how to behave as men.
  17. electra complex
    girls being atracted to thier fathers
  18. individuation
    the formation of personal identifty by the development of the self as a unique person separate from parents and others.
  19. psychoanalytic thoery
    frued thoery that the strcture of personality is composed of the id, ego and superegp and that mental health depends on keeping the baalnce between them.
  20. id
    thos instictual urgges that a person seeks to staify according to pleasure principle
  21. ego
    according to frued the rtaional mind that seeks to satisfy the id in keeping with relaity
  22. superego
    according to frued the part of the mind that opposes the desires of the id by enforcing moral resdtrictions that have been learned to try to attain a goal of perfection.
  23. defense mechnism
    to win the battle btewwen the id and superego.
  24. ego identity
    8 stages of human deveopment- each stage you have to master a task if you dont it produces conflict. stage 5 identify vs. diffusion is most important.
  25. psychosocial moratorium
    a socailly asacnction period between childhood and adulthood during whihc an individual is free to experiment to find socially acceptable idenitit role.
  26. emerging adulthood
    the stage of life generally extended through ones 20's in which one is between as and full adulthood.
  27. adpatation and equilibirum
    • cognitive devleopment is the combined result of envronmental inflrunces and the maturation of the brain and nervous syet. He used fiev terms to describe the deveopment
    • schems
    • adaptation
    • assimilation
    • accomdation and equilibirum
  28. schema
    the orginal patterns of thinking- the mental structures that people use for dealing with what happens in the environment
  29. adaptation
    inclduing and adjusting to new information that increases understanding
  30. assimilation
    incorporating features of the envionrment into existing mode or sturcture of thought
  31. equilibrium
    achieveing a blance between schema and acconomdation
  32. accomodation
    adjusting to new info by creating new structure to replace old ones
  33. stages involved with jean piaget
    • sensorimotor
    • preoperational
    • concerte
    • formal operational
  34. mental operation
    abstract reasoning skills that allows children to think logically
  35. Vygotsky
    cognitive skill deveops thru social interaction- child learn best whenthey are paired with those that are older than them.This is called the zine of proximal deveopment
  36. scaffolding
    the assiatnce provided to help a child master a task it is gradually withdrawn as the child gains confidence.
  37. social leraning thhoery
    children learn thru observing behavior of others and by imitating this pattern a process referred ot as modeling.
  38. modeling
    lerning by observing and imitating behavior of another
  39. reinforment
    in the operant condition thiery- emphasizes the dual role of reinforcement- reward and punishment. and expanded version of this was vicarious reinforment and self reienforcment. Vicaries conist of positiove or negative consequences that one observes others experiences. and self reinforcment is that act of learning rewards themselves for activities or repsonce that they consider good quality.
  40. social cognitive thoery
    people dtermine thoier won destiny- by how they react to thier environment.
  41. deveopmental tasks
    • the skills knowldege functions and attitudes that individual have to aquire at certain points in order to function effectively as a mature person.
    • they include
    • acceoting ons phsyque
    • achiveing new and more matur relations
    • achiveing a masculine or femine social sex role
    • achieveing emotional independence from parents and other adults
    • preparing for an economic acreer
    • preparing for marriage nad  family life
    • desireing and achieving socailly repsinible behavior
    • Aquiring a set of vlaues and an ethical system as a guide to behavior.
  42. field thoery
    atemops to explain whay ads go between mature and chilish behavior. his core concep tis that bheavior is a function of the person and of his or her environment. group membership changes sometimes treated as a adult sometimes are not.
  43. ecilogical system thoery
    • take sinto account families, communities and countries
    • micro system, meso system, exosystem, macro system
  44. micor system
    ecological system thoery- people who have immdeiate contact with ad. and who influcen hm or her
  45. meso system
    ecological thoery- the reciprocal relationships amoung mior system seeting- teacher parents ect
  46. exo stsem
    includes setting in which the ads does not have an active role as a participant but that inflrunce him or her- mom or dad losing a job
  47. macro system
    ecological thoery- sttitudes morals cutsims and laws of a culture that unfleunce
  48. Anthropoligical views
    emopohasize importance of broader social envronment.
  49. biochemical basis of puberty
    the hypothalamus, the pituitaryt gland, the gionads, the adrenal glands
  50. function of maks ex organs
    spermatogenisis, deveoping penis, cowpers glands, nocturanl emmisions
  51. function/maturation of female sex organs
    deveoping vagina, changes in vulva and uterus, ovarian chanes, mecnarche and menstrual cycle
  52. endocrin galnds
    structures in the bodt that produce hormones
  53. hormones
    biochemical substances secreted into the bloodstream by the endocrine glands that act as an internal communication system that tells different cells what to do.
  54. hypothalamus
    a small area of the brain that controls motivation emotion pleasure and pain in the body that is it controls eating, drinking, hormonal production, menstration.
  55. GnRH
    a hormone secreted by the hypo that cntrol the production and relase of FSH and LH.
  56. pituitary gland
    master gland of the body located at the base of the brain
  57. FSH
    a hormone that stimulates that maturation of the follicles and ova in the ovaries and of sperm in the testes
  58. LH
    a oituitary hormone that stimulates the deveopment of the ovuma dn etsrogen progesterone in femals and sperm in males
  59. transductive reasoing
    particular to particular
  60. indictuve
    particular to general
  61. deductive
    general to particular
  62. syncretism
    tryiong to link idea that are not related
  63. hierarchial classification
    the ability to divide objects into a series of categories
  64. class inclusion relationships
    understanding that objects can be futr into diff. levels of hierarchies
  65. preoptional
    tranductive, inductive, deductive, syncretism, ego centric, animism
  66. concerte operational stage
    hierarchical, class inclusion, transitive infernneces, seriate, conservation problems
  67. transtive
    ability to solve prob,e such a tom is taller then fred ect
  68. seriate
    the act of lininf things up in order from large to small or small to large
  69. conservation problems
    an objects changing apperance does not alter fundamnetal prperties
  70. effects of ads thought on personality and behavior
    idealism, hypocrist, pseudostupiidity, egocentrism, introspection
  71. idelaistic
    insiting upon high standards of bheavior
  72. hypocrisy
    discrepency between what people say and what they do
  73. pseudostupidity
    a tendency to approach prbems at a much too complex a level and to fail
  74. ego centriams
    the inability to take the prespective of another or to imagine the other person point of view
  75. imiginary audience
    belief that others are constantly paying atention to them
  76. personal fable
    belief they are invulnerable and that thier feeling are special and unqie
  77. introspection
    thinking about ones owns thoughts and feelings
  78. crituquw of piagets thoery
    • age and universlaity
    • beyond formal operations
    • consistency
  79. dilaects
    an advanced form of reasoning that allows one to create new and better insights by integrating conflicting data
  80. information prcessing
    an approacj tostudying cognition that focuses on the perceptionm, attention and retrival and mnaipulation of infromaion
  81. stweps in processing
    • stimuli
    • selection
    • interpretation
    • memory
  82. memenory stages
    • sensory stroage
    • short term
    • long term
  83. sensory stroage
    the process by which info is recived and transduced by the senses usually in a frcation of a second
  84. higher order thought processes
    • infernce
    • thinking
    • reasoning
  85. infernce
    to deveop new thoughts from old info
  86. decision making process
    • identifying alternate cours of action
    • identifying approproiate criteria for considering alternative
    • assessing alternatives by criteria
    • summarzinf info
    • evaluating
  87. heuristics
    rules of thumd, general strategies or principles- barrier to good decision making
  88. dual process thoery
    a thoery of decison making that says that ads can logically make choices but that they often rely upon intution and short term beenfits
  89. Epistemological understaning
    • level one- naive realist
    • level 2- defensive realist
    • level 3- dogmatist or skeptical
    • level 4- post skeptical rationalism
  90. naive realist
    belive that there are abosulte univeral truths
  91. defensive realist
    belive theier are absolute truths but people are biased
  92. dogmatits
    cling to one beleif
  93. skeptist
    those who reject rationality
  94. post skeptical rationalism
     the bleif that truth is constructed but the some belifs are more valid than others
  95. pschometric approach
    an apprach to cognitve deveopemtn that focuses on the measurment of knowldged and thinking ability.
  96. differnt types of selves
    • idela slev
    • possible self
    • hopre for sleves
    • expected sleves
    • efeared seleves
  97. self enhancement thesis
    an explanation for delinquency based on the need for troubled youths to enchance thier self esteem.
  98. seven conflicts
    • temporal perspective vs. time confusion
    • self certainity vs. self consciousness
    • role experimentation vs. role fixation
    • apprenticeship vs. work paralysis
    • sexual polarization vs. bisexual cnifsuoons
  99. identify status
    • identity diffused
    • forclosure
    • moratorium
    • identity achieved
  100. identity dissued
     ads. who have not experience a criis and explored meaninful alternatives or made any commitment to do so
  101. forclosure
    establishing an identify wtihuot looking serahc or exploration
  102. negative ideneity
    one based on rejecting parental and socital values
  103. moratorium
    a period in time when ads who are involved in continual crsis who contune to searhc but have made no commitment
  104. identity as a process
    identity control system that consist of 2 interpersonal and 3 intrapersonal componets. The interperonsal are spcial bheavior and....
  105. ethnic identity
    acculturation- the adjustment of minorty groups to a cultre of the dominat group
  106. 4 types of of participation in society
    • separation
    • assimilation
    • integration
    • marginality
  107. other conepts for ethic identity
    blended bicultrualism ( commonalities) and alternaing biculturalism and fusion