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- sturm und drang
- sprial growth patterns
Psychoanalytical and psuchosocial views
- frued- individuation
- defnes mechanism
- ego identity
- piaget - adaptation and equilibrium
- vygotski- socil influcesn on cognition
social leanrin view
- social learning thoery
- social cognitive thoery
cultural impact son ads
- deveopmental tasks
- field thiery
- ecological system thuery
- Marageter mead- anthropogoical views
sturm und dang
sotmr and stress- sued to descrive the violatile adolescent temperment
Sturm aund drang- bilogical view
belived ads. are on an emotional seesaw- after moving through the animnal, hunter and svagery stages of infancy, childhoos and preadolscene respectively.
Sprial growth patterns
bellived that genes dtermine the order of appearence of behavioral traits and deveopmental trends. This cnocept implies biological dterminism that prevnts teacher parents ect from infleuncing human devopment
sigmund frued- individuation
a period of sexual excitment, anxiety and sometime personaliti disturbances. Had fourstages- the oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital stage.
the firts stage of frueds thoery usually goes from birth to 1 year during which the childs cheif source of pleasure and staifiction comes from oral activity.
the second stage in frueds during the 2nd year of flife during which the child seeks pleasure and satisfaction through anal activity an the elmination of waste
the3rd stage of frued about ages 4-6 during which the genital area is the chief source of pleasure and satisfaction
4th stage of frued 6-12 during which sexual interest remain hidden whitl the child concentrates on school and other activities
the last stage in frued which is when sexual urges result in seeking other persons as sexual objects to relive sexual tenision
from freud- the idea that boys become jealous of thier mothers attention otward thier fathers- boys fear that fathers will try to remove them as sexual rivals which is called castration anxiety.
- the taking on of aperntal values, beliefs and behaviors.
- it services two functions- it reduces castration anxiety and teaches boys how to behave as men.
girls being atracted to thier fathers
the formation of personal identifty by the development of the self as a unique person separate from parents and others.
frued thoery that the strcture of personality is composed of the id, ego and superegp and that mental health depends on keeping the baalnce between them.
thos instictual urgges that a person seeks to staify according to pleasure principle
according to frued the rtaional mind that seeks to satisfy the id in keeping with relaity
according to frued the part of the mind that opposes the desires of the id by enforcing moral resdtrictions that have been learned to try to attain a goal of perfection.
to win the battle btewwen the id and superego.
8 stages of human deveopment- each stage you have to master a task if you dont it produces conflict. stage 5 identify vs. diffusion is most important.
a socailly asacnction period between childhood and adulthood during whihc an individual is free to experiment to find socially acceptable idenitit role.
the stage of life generally extended through ones 20's in which one is between as and full adulthood.
adpatation and equilibirum
- cognitive devleopment is the combined result of envronmental inflrunces and the maturation of the brain and nervous syet. He used fiev terms to describe the deveopment
- accomdation and equilibirum
the orginal patterns of thinking- the mental structures that people use for dealing with what happens in the environment
inclduing and adjusting to new information that increases understanding
incorporating features of the envionrment into existing mode or sturcture of thought
achieveing a blance between schema and acconomdation
adjusting to new info by creating new structure to replace old ones
stages involved with jean piaget
- formal operational
abstract reasoning skills that allows children to think logically
cognitive skill deveops thru social interaction- child learn best whenthey are paired with those that are older than them.This is called the zine of proximal deveopment
the assiatnce provided to help a child master a task it is gradually withdrawn as the child gains confidence.
social leraning thhoery
children learn thru observing behavior of others and by imitating this pattern a process referred ot as modeling.
lerning by observing and imitating behavior of another
in the operant condition thiery- emphasizes the dual role of reinforcement- reward and punishment. and expanded version of this was vicarious reinforment and self reienforcment. Vicaries conist of positiove or negative consequences that one observes others experiences. and self reinforcment is that act of learning rewards themselves for activities or repsonce that they consider good quality.
social cognitive thoery
people dtermine thoier won destiny- by how they react to thier environment.
- the skills knowldege functions and attitudes that individual have to aquire at certain points in order to function effectively as a mature person.
- they include
- acceoting ons phsyque
- achiveing new and more matur relations
- achiveing a masculine or femine social sex role
- achieveing emotional independence from parents and other adults
- preparing for an economic acreer
- preparing for marriage nad family life
- desireing and achieving socailly repsinible behavior
- Aquiring a set of vlaues and an ethical system as a guide to behavior.
atemops to explain whay ads go between mature and chilish behavior. his core concep tis that bheavior is a function of the person and of his or her environment. group membership changes sometimes treated as a adult sometimes are not.
ecilogical system thoery
- take sinto account families, communities and countries
- micro system, meso system, exosystem, macro system
ecological system thoery- people who have immdeiate contact with ad. and who influcen hm or her
ecological thoery- the reciprocal relationships amoung mior system seeting- teacher parents ect
includes setting in which the ads does not have an active role as a participant but that inflrunce him or her- mom or dad losing a job
ecological thoery- sttitudes morals cutsims and laws of a culture that unfleunce
emopohasize importance of broader social envronment.
biochemical basis of puberty
the hypothalamus, the pituitaryt gland, the gionads, the adrenal glands
function of maks ex organs
spermatogenisis, deveoping penis, cowpers glands, nocturanl emmisions
function/maturation of female sex organs
deveoping vagina, changes in vulva and uterus, ovarian chanes, mecnarche and menstrual cycle
structures in the bodt that produce hormones
biochemical substances secreted into the bloodstream by the endocrine glands that act as an internal communication system that tells different cells what to do.
a small area of the brain that controls motivation emotion pleasure and pain in the body that is it controls eating, drinking, hormonal production, menstration.
a hormone secreted by the hypo that cntrol the production and relase of FSH and LH.
master gland of the body located at the base of the brain
a hormone that stimulates that maturation of the follicles and ova in the ovaries and of sperm in the testes
a oituitary hormone that stimulates the deveopment of the ovuma dn etsrogen progesterone in femals and sperm in males
particular to particular
particular to general
general to particular
tryiong to link idea that are not related
the ability to divide objects into a series of categories
class inclusion relationships
understanding that objects can be futr into diff. levels of hierarchies
tranductive, inductive, deductive, syncretism, ego centric, animism
concerte operational stage
hierarchical, class inclusion, transitive infernneces, seriate, conservation problems
ability to solve prob,e such a tom is taller then fred ect
the act of lininf things up in order from large to small or small to large
an objects changing apperance does not alter fundamnetal prperties
effects of ads thought on personality and behavior
idealism, hypocrist, pseudostupiidity, egocentrism, introspection
insiting upon high standards of bheavior
discrepency between what people say and what they do
a tendency to approach prbems at a much too complex a level and to fail
the inability to take the prespective of another or to imagine the other person point of view
belief that others are constantly paying atention to them
belief they are invulnerable and that thier feeling are special and unqie
thinking about ones owns thoughts and feelings
crituquw of piagets thoery
- age and universlaity
- beyond formal operations
an advanced form of reasoning that allows one to create new and better insights by integrating conflicting data
an approacj tostudying cognition that focuses on the perceptionm, attention and retrival and mnaipulation of infromaion
stweps in processing
- sensory stroage
- short term
- long term
the process by which info is recived and transduced by the senses usually in a frcation of a second
higher order thought processes
to deveop new thoughts from old info
decision making process
- identifying alternate cours of action
- identifying approproiate criteria for considering alternative
- assessing alternatives by criteria
- summarzinf info
rules of thumd, general strategies or principles- barrier to good decision making
dual process thoery
a thoery of decison making that says that ads can logically make choices but that they often rely upon intution and short term beenfits
- level one- naive realist
- level 2- defensive realist
- level 3- dogmatist or skeptical
- level 4- post skeptical rationalism
belive that there are abosulte univeral truths
belive theier are absolute truths but people are biased
cling to one beleif
those who reject rationality
post skeptical rationalism
the bleif that truth is constructed but the some belifs are more valid than others
an apprach to cognitve deveopemtn that focuses on the measurment of knowldged and thinking ability.
differnt types of selves
- idela slev
- possible self
- hopre for sleves
- expected sleves
- efeared seleves
self enhancement thesis
an explanation for delinquency based on the need for troubled youths to enchance thier self esteem.
- temporal perspective vs. time confusion
- self certainity vs. self consciousness
- role experimentation vs. role fixation
- apprenticeship vs. work paralysis
- sexual polarization vs. bisexual cnifsuoons
- identity diffused
- identity achieved
ads. who have not experience a criis and explored meaninful alternatives or made any commitment to do so
establishing an identify wtihuot looking serahc or exploration
one based on rejecting parental and socital values
a period in time when ads who are involved in continual crsis who contune to searhc but have made no commitment
identity as a process
identity control system that consist of 2 interpersonal and 3 intrapersonal componets. The interperonsal are spcial bheavior and....
acculturation- the adjustment of minorty groups to a cultre of the dominat group
4 types of of participation in society
other conepts for ethic identity
blended bicultrualism ( commonalities) and alternaing biculturalism and fusion