Biology exam 2

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Biology exam 2
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2012-10-04 16:22:33
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Human Bio
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Chapter 4-7
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  1. There are three main types of connective tissue
    A. fibrous , B. supportive and C. fluid
  2. Loser fibers create loose, open framework
    Dense fibers are densely packed.
    Fibrous connective tissue
  3. Cartliage
    Solid yet flexible matrix
    Bone
    Solid and rigid matrix
    Supportive connective tissue
  4. Blood
    contained in blood vessels
    Lymph
    Contained in lymphatic vessels
    Fluid Connective tissue
  5. Fine collagen fibers (location: nose, ends of long bones and fetal skeleton)
    Hyaline cartilage
  6. More elastic fibers than cartilage fibers (location: outer ear)
    Elastic cartilage
  7. Strong collagen fibers (location: disks between vertebrae)
    Fibrocartilage
  8. Made of repeating circular units called osteons which contain the hard matrix and living cells and blood vessels (Location: shafts of long bone)
    Compact
  9. An open, latticework with irregular spaces (Location: ends of long bones)
    Spongy
  10. Made of a fluid matrix called plasma and cellular components that are called formed elements
    Blood
  11. Cells that carry oxygen
    Red blood cells
  12. Cells that fight infection
    White blood cells
  13. Pieces of cells that clot blood
    Platelets
  14. The three types of muscle tissues in humans
    • Skeletal
    • Smooth
    • Cardiac
  15. Has striated cells with multiple nuclei
    Occurs in muscles attached to skeleton
    Functions in voluntary movement of body
    Muscle tissue - Skeletal
  16. Has spindle-shaped cells, each with a single nucleus
    Cells have no striations
    Functions in movement of substances in lumens of body
    is involuntary
    is found in blood vessel walls and walls of hte digestive tract
    Muscle tissue - smooth
  17. has branching, striated cells, each with a single nucleus
    occurs in the wall of the heart
    functions in the pumping of blood
    is involuntary
    Muscle tissue - Cardiac
  18. Allows for communication between cells through sensory input, integration of data and motor input
    Nervous tissue
  19. Made of dendrites, a cell body, and an axon
    Neurons
  20. Carry information toward the cell body
    Dendrites
  21. Carry information towards a cell body
    Axons
  22. A collection of cells that support and nourish neurons
    Outnumber neurons 9:1
    Nervous tissue - neuroglia
  23. One layer of cells
    Simple epithelial
  24. More than one layer of cells
    Stratified epithelial
  25. Appears to have layers but only has one layer
    Pseudostratified epithelial
  26. Cube-shaped
    Cuboidal epithelial
  27. Column-shaped
    Columnar epithelial
  28. Flattened
    Squamos epithelial
  29. Protects the body from physical trauma, invasion by pathogens and water loss
    Helps regulate body temperature
    ALlows us to be aware of our surrounding through sensory receptors
    Synthesizes chemicals such as melanin and vitamin D
    Functions of the Integumentary system
  30. Epidermis
    Dermis
    Two regions of the skin
  31. Type of white blood cells that help fight pathogens
    Langerhans cells
  32. The thin, outermost layer of the skin.
    Epidermis
  33. Produce melanin that lend to skin color and protection fro UV light.
    Melanocytes
  34. The thick, inner layer of the skin.
    Dermis
  35. the most common yet least deadly form of skin cancer
    Basal cell carcinoma
  36. the most deadly form of skin cancer but is the least common
    Melanoma
  37. What are the organ systems of the human body?
    • Muscular
    • Endocrine
    • Reproductive
    • Nervous
    • Skeletal
  38. What are the body cavaties?
    • Dorsal
    • Ventral
  39. Lines the cavities of freely movable joints
    Synovial membrane
  40. Cover the brain and spinal cord
    Meninges
  41. lining of the digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems
    Mucous membranes
  42. line lungs, heart, abdominal cavity and cover the internal organs; named after their location
    Pleura: lungs
    Peritoneum: abdominal cavity and organs
    Pericardium: heart
    Serous membranes
  43. The ability to maintain a relatively constant internal environment in the body
    Homeostasis
  44. What are the functions of the cardiovascular system?
    • Generate Blood pressure
    • Transport blood
    • Exchange of nutrients and wastes at the capillaries
    • Regulate blood flow as needed
  45. What is the main pathway of blood in the body?
    Heart – arteries – arterioles – capillaries - venules – veins – back to the heart…
  46. Small veins that receive blood from the capillaries
    Venules
  47. Carry blood toward the heart
    Veins
  48. How many chambers does the heart have?
    4, 2 atria and 2 ventricles
  49. How is the heartbeat controlled?
    • Internal Control
    • External Control
  50. The pressure against a blood vessel wall, usually measured in an artery in the arm.
    Blood pressure
  51. The highest pressure is during blood ejection from the heart
    Systolic pressure
  52. The lowest pressure when the ventricles relax
    Diastolic pressure
  53. What is blood pressure controlled by?
    The arterioles
  54. If blood pressure is so low in the veins why does the blood flow increase?
    • 1. Skeletal muscle contraction
    • 2. Breathing
    • 3. Valves
  55. What are the two cardiovascular pathways in the body?
    • Pulmonary circuit
    • Systemic circuit
  56. the right side of the heart that brings blood from the body to the heart and the lungs
    Pulmonary circuit
  57. the left side of the heart that brings blood to the entire body to deliver nutrients and rid it of wastes
    Systemic circuit
  58. What is the hepatic portal system?
    A system that brings blood from the digestive tract rich in amino acids and glucose to the liver
  59. Disorders of the blood vessels
    • Hypertension/high blood pressure
    • Atherosclerosis
    • Stroke
    • Heart Attack
    • Aneurysm
  60. High blood pressure results when blood moves through vessels at a rate higher than normal often due to arterial plaque
    Hypertension
  61. A build up of plaque in blood vessels
    Atherosclerosis
  62. Usually occurs when a cranial artery is blocked or bursts
    Stroke
  63. Also known as a myocardial infarction (MI)
    Heart Attack
  64. A ballooning of a blood vessel
    Aneurysm
  65. What are the functions of blood?
    • Transportation: oxygen, nutrients, wastes, carbon dioxide and hormones
    • Defense: against invasion by pathogens
    • Regulatory functions: body temperature, water-salt balance and body pH
  66. Name three majot types of plasma proteins
    • Albumins
    • Globulins
    • Fibrinogen
  67. most abundant and important for plasma’s osmotic pressure as well as transportation
    Albumins
  68. Alos important in trasnportation
    Globulins
  69. Important for the formation of blood clots
    Fibrinogen
  70. a condition resulting from too few RBC’s or hemoglobin that causes a run-down feeling
    Anemia
  71. a condition resulting from too few RBC’s or hemoglobin that causes a run-down feeling
    Sickle-cell anemia
  72. a condition with incompatible blood types that leads to rupturing of blood cells in a baby before and continuing after birth
    Hemolytic disease of the newborn
  73. How are white blood cells categorized?
    • Granular
    • Agranular
  74. Contain noticeable granules, lobed nuclei
    -Eosinophil
    -Basophil
    -Neutrophil
    Granular
  75. No granules, nonlobed nuclei
    -Lymphocyte
    -Monocyte
    Agranular
  76. Upon infection they move out of circulation into tissues to use phagocytosis to engulf pathogens
    Neutrophils
  77. Many large granulesfunction in parasitic infections and play a role in allergies
    Eosinophils
  78. Release histamine related to allergic reactions
    Basophil
  79. Develop into B and T cells that are important in the immune system
    Lymphocyte
  80. Macrophages use phagocytosis to engulf pathogens
    Monocyte
  81. an inherited disease in which stem cells of WBC’s lack an enzyme that allows them to fight any infection
    Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID)
  82. groups of cancers that affect white blood cells in which cells proliferate without control
    Leukemia
  83. also known as the “kissing disease” occurs when the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects lymphocytes resulting in fatigue, sore throat and swollen lymph nodes
    Infectious mononucleosis
  84. a disorder in which the number of platelets is too low due to not enough being made in the bone marrow or the increased breakdown outside the marrow
    Thrombocytopenia
  85. when a clot forms and breaks off from its site of origin and plugs another vessel
    Thromboembolism
  86. a genetic disorder that results in a deficiency of a clotting factor so that when a person damages a blood vessel they are unable to properly clot their blood both internally and externally
    Hemophilia
  87. a foreign substance, often a polysaccharide or a protein, that stimulates an immune response
    Antigen
  88. proteins made in response to an antigen in the body and bind to that antigen
    Antibody
  89. transfer of blood from one individual into another individual
    Blood transfusion
  90. Rh blood groups
    People with the Rh factor are positive and those without it are negative
  91. Microbes are very abundant in:
    the environment and as well as in and on our bodies
  92. We use microbes for?
    to make many foods and we even use them to make drugs
  93. Some microbes cause disease in humans called
    pathogens
  94. Microscopic organisms and particles that include:
    Bacteria
    Viruses
    Prions
    Others (fungi, multicellular parasites, single-celled protistans)
    Microbes
  95. Small, non-living obligate parasites
    Viruses
  96. Composed of specialized cells of the same type that perform a common function in the body.
    Tissue
  97. Binds and supports body parts
    Connective tissue
  98. Moves the body and its parts
    Muscular tissue
  99. receives stimuli and conducts nerve impulses
    Nervous tissue
  100. Covers body surfaces and lines body cavities
    Epithelial tissue
  101. What are prions?
    Infectious protein particles
  102. What are hte 4 functions of the lymphatic system?
    • Lymphatic capillaries absorb excess tissue fluid and return it to the bloodstream
    • Lymphatic capillaries (lacteals) in the small intestine absorb fats associated with proteins
    • Works in the production, maintenance and distribution of lymphocytes in the body
    • Helps in defense against pathogens
  103. One-way valve system that carries fluid called lymph
    Made of capillaries, vessels and ducts
    Function to return tissue fluid (includes water, solutes and cell products) to the bloodstream
    The larger vessels are similar in structure to veins and even have valves
    Lymphatic Vessels
  104. Classifying lymphatic organs
    • Primary
    • -Red bone marrow
    • -Thymus Gland
    • Secondary
    • -Lymph Nodes
    • -Spleen
  105. Produce plasma cells and memory cells
    B cells
  106. Regulate immune response; produce cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells
    T cells
  107. What are the 5 classes of antibodies?
    • IG G
    • IG M
    • IG A
    • IG D
    • IG E
  108. Secrete cytokines that help many immune cells function
    Helper T cells
  109. Have vacuoles containing granzymes and perforins
    Perforins punch holes in target cells followed by granzymes that cause the cell to undergo apoptosis
    Cytotoxic T cells
  110. What are the two types of immunity?
    Active and passive
  111. Active Immunity
    The individual’s body makes antibodies against a particular antigen
  112. Passive immunity
    An individual is given prepared antibodies against a particular antigen
  113. What are the disorders of the immune system?
    • Autoimmune diseases
    • Immunodeficiency disease
  114. A disease in which cytotoxic T cells or antibodies attack the body’s own cells as if they were foreign
    Examples: multiple sclerosis, lupus, myasthenia gravis and rheumatoid arthritis
    Autoimmune diseases
  115. A disease in which the immune system is compromised and thus unable to defend the body against disease
    Examples: AIDS and SCID
    Immunodeficiency disease

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