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There are three main types of connective tissue
A. fibrous , B. supportive and C. fluid
Loser fibers create loose, open framework
Dense fibers are densely packed.
Fibrous connective tissue
Solid yet flexible matrix
Solid and rigid matrix
Supportive connective tissue
contained in blood vessels
Contained in lymphatic vessels
Fluid Connective tissue
Fine collagen fibers (location: nose, ends of long bones and fetal skeleton)
More elastic fibers than cartilage fibers (location: outer ear)
Strong collagen fibers (location: disks between vertebrae)
Made of repeating circular units called osteons which contain the hard matrix and living cells and blood vessels (Location: shafts of long bone)
An open, latticework with irregular spaces (Location: ends of long bones)
Made of a fluid matrix called plasma and cellular components that are called formed elements
Cells that carry oxygen
Red blood cells
Cells that fight infection
White blood cells
Pieces of cells that clot blood
The three types of muscle tissues in humans
Has striated cells with multiple nuclei
Occurs in muscles attached to skeleton
Functions in voluntary movement of body
Muscle tissue - Skeletal
Has spindle-shaped cells, each with a single nucleus
Cells have no striations
Functions in movement of substances in lumens of body
is found in blood vessel walls and walls of hte digestive tract
Muscle tissue - smooth
has branching, striated cells, each with a single nucleus
occurs in the wall of the heart
functions in the pumping of blood
Muscle tissue - Cardiac
Allows for communication between cells through sensory input, integration of data and motor input
Made of dendrites, a cell body, and an axon
Carry information toward the cell body
Carry information towards a cell body
A collection of cells that support and nourish neurons
Outnumber neurons 9:1
Nervous tissue - neuroglia
One layer of cells
More than one layer of cells
Appears to have layers but only has one layer
Protects the body from physical trauma, invasion by pathogens and water loss
Helps regulate body temperature
ALlows us to be aware of our surrounding through sensory receptors
Synthesizes chemicals such as melanin and vitamin D
Functions of the Integumentary system
Two regions of the skin
Type of white blood cells that help fight pathogens
The thin, outermost layer of the skin.
Produce melanin that lend to skin color and protection fro UV light.
The thick, inner layer of the skin.
the most common yet least deadly form of skin cancer
Basal cell carcinoma
the most deadly form of skin cancer but is the least common
What are the organ systems of the human body?
What are the body cavaties?
Lines the cavities of freely movable joints
Cover the brain and spinal cord
lining of the digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems
line lungs, heart, abdominal cavity and cover the internal organs; named after their location
Peritoneum: abdominal cavity and organs
The ability to maintain a relatively constant internal environment in the body
What are the functions of the cardiovascular system?
- Generate Blood pressure
- Transport blood
- Exchange of nutrients and wastes at the capillaries
- Regulate blood flow as needed
What is the main pathway of blood in the body?
Heart – arteries – arterioles – capillaries - venules – veins – back to the heart…
Small veins that receive blood from the capillaries
Carry blood toward the heart
How many chambers does the heart have?
4, 2 atria and 2 ventricles
How is the heartbeat controlled?
- Internal Control
- External Control
The pressure against a blood vessel wall, usually measured in an artery in the arm.
The highest pressure is during blood ejection from the heart
The lowest pressure when the ventricles relax
What is blood pressure controlled by?
If blood pressure is so low in the veins why does the blood flow increase?
- 1. Skeletal muscle contraction
- 2. Breathing
- 3. Valves
What are the two cardiovascular pathways in the body?
- Pulmonary circuit
- Systemic circuit
the right side of the heart that brings blood from the body to the heart and the lungs
the left side of the heart that brings blood to the entire body to deliver nutrients and rid it of wastes
What is the hepatic portal system?
A system that brings blood from the digestive tract rich in amino acids and glucose to the liver
Disorders of the blood vessels
- Hypertension/high blood pressure
- Heart Attack
High blood pressure results when blood moves through vessels at a rate higher than normal often due to arterial plaque
A build up of plaque in blood vessels
Usually occurs when a cranial artery is blocked or bursts
Also known as a myocardial infarction (MI)
A ballooning of a blood vessel
What are the functions of blood?
- Transportation: oxygen, nutrients, wastes, carbon dioxide and hormones
- Defense: against invasion by pathogens
- Regulatory functions: body temperature, water-salt balance and body pH
Name three majot types of plasma proteins
most abundant and important for plasma’s osmotic pressure as well as transportation
Alos important in trasnportation
Important for the formation of blood clots
a condition resulting from too few RBC’s or hemoglobin that causes a run-down feeling
a condition resulting from too few RBC’s or hemoglobin that causes a run-down feeling
a condition with incompatible blood types that leads to rupturing of blood cells in a baby before and continuing after birth
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
How are white blood cells categorized?
Contain noticeable granules, lobed nuclei
No granules, nonlobed nuclei
Upon infection they move out of circulation into tissues to use phagocytosis to engulf pathogens
Many large granulesfunction in parasitic infections and play a role in allergies
Release histamine related to allergic reactions
Develop into B and T cells that are important in the immune system
Macrophages use phagocytosis to engulf pathogens
an inherited disease in which stem cells of WBC’s lack an enzyme that allows them to fight any infection
Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID)
groups of cancers that affect white blood cells in which cells proliferate without control
also known as the “kissing disease” occurs when the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infects lymphocytes resulting in fatigue, sore throat and swollen lymph nodes
a disorder in which the number of platelets is too low due to not enough being made in the bone marrow or the increased breakdown outside the marrow
when a clot forms and breaks off from its site of origin and plugs another vessel
a genetic disorder that results in a deficiency of a clotting factor so that when a person damages a blood vessel they are unable to properly clot their blood both internally and externally
a foreign substance, often a polysaccharide or a protein, that stimulates an immune response
proteins made in response to an antigen in the body and bind to that antigen
transfer of blood from one individual into another individual
Rh blood groups
People with the Rh factor are positive and those without it are negative
Microbes are very abundant in:
the environment and as well as in and on our bodies
We use microbes for?
to make many foods and we even use them to make drugs
Some microbes cause disease in humans called
Microscopic organisms and particles that include:
Others (fungi, multicellular parasites, single-celled protistans)
Small, non-living obligate parasites
Composed of specialized cells of the same type that perform a common function in the body.
Binds and supports body parts
Moves the body and its parts
receives stimuli and conducts nerve impulses
Covers body surfaces and lines body cavities
What are prions?
Infectious protein particles
What are hte 4 functions of the lymphatic system?
- Lymphatic capillaries absorb excess tissue fluid and return it to the bloodstream
- Lymphatic capillaries (lacteals) in the small intestine absorb fats associated with proteins
- Works in the production, maintenance and distribution of lymphocytes in the body
- Helps in defense against pathogens
One-way valve system that carries fluid called lymph
Made of capillaries, vessels and ducts
Function to return tissue fluid (includes water, solutes and cell products) to the bloodstream
The larger vessels are similar in structure to veins and even have valves
Classifying lymphatic organs
- -Red bone marrow
- -Thymus Gland
- -Lymph Nodes
Produce plasma cells and memory cells
Regulate immune response; produce cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells
What are the 5 classes of antibodies?
Secrete cytokines that help many immune cells function
Helper T cells
Have vacuoles containing granzymes and perforins
Perforins punch holes in target cells followed by granzymes that cause the cell to undergo apoptosis
Cytotoxic T cells
What are the two types of immunity?
Active and passive
The individual’s body makes antibodies against a particular antigen
An individual is given prepared antibodies against a particular antigen
What are the disorders of the immune system?
- Autoimmune diseases
- Immunodeficiency disease
A disease in which cytotoxic T cells or antibodies attack the body’s own cells as if they were foreign
Examples: multiple sclerosis, lupus, myasthenia gravis and rheumatoid arthritis
A disease in which the immune system is compromised and thus unable to defend the body against disease
Examples: AIDS and SCID