patho/pharm II- exam 2- Coagulation Modifiers (6 pts)

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nika.steffan
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patho/pharm II- exam 2- Coagulation Modifiers (6 pts)
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2012-10-03 16:03:16
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patho pharm II exam Coagulation Modifiers pts
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patho/pharm II- exam 2- Coagulation Modifiers (6 pts)
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  1. What are three ways anticoagulants work?
    • 1. Prevent fibrin deposits
    • 2. Prevent extension (growing) of a blood clot
    • 3. Prevent thromboEMBOLIC complications (prevent blood clot from moving)
  2. What are the two main groups of anticoagulant medications?
    • 1. Oral - Coumadin
    • 2. Parenteral- Heparin
  3. What is the action of anticoagulant drugs?
    Prevents clot development
  4. When is heparin used?
    • (parenteral anticoagulant)
    • - when rapid anticoagulant therapy is needed
    • - Surgery on heart or blood vessels, Desseminated Intravascular Coagulation, Hemodialysis, Prolonged bed rest
  5. When is heparin flush used? 
    To keep IV lines patent
  6. What is the preferred anticoagulant during pregnancy?
    Heparin
  7. When is coumadin used? 
    • Long-term maintanence
    • - prevent DVT, PE, thromboembolism ass with afib/flutter
  8. What are the lab values used to regulate heparin?
    • Target heparin assay: .3-.69 units/mL 
    • aPTT: 1.5-2.5 x control
    • ACT: 2-3 x control
  9. What is the mechanism of action for heparin?
    Prevents conversion of Prothrombin to thrombin and fibrinogen to fibrin
  10. What is the mechanism of action for coumadin?
    Interferes with liver synthesis of vitamin K dependent clotting factors
  11. What are the lab values used to regulate coumadin? 
    • PT
    • INR
  12. How can patients taking oral anticoagulant therapy prevent risk of bleeding and how is it treated if it occurs?
    • Warfaran (Coumadin)-
    • Px: Diet high in vitamin K- green leafy veges, milk, meat
    • Tx: vitamin K or FFP is given
  13. When is Protamine Sulfate used? 
    Antidote to both heparin and coumadin
  14. What should you do before administering heparin? 
    Always check vial with another RN and have them tell you how much is in it
  15. LMWH = 
    • low molecular weight heparin
    • Enoxaparin (Lovenox
  16. What is the advantage to using lovenox over heparin?
    • Fewer hemorrhagic complications
    • No need for monotoring blood work daily
  17. 1. Argatroban
    2. Bivalirudin-Angiomax
    3. Lepirudin-Refludan

    What type of drugs are these and what are they primarily used for? 
    HIT -- Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia
  18. 1. Alteplase- Activase
    2. Streptokinase-Streptase
    3. Unokinase- Abbokinase
    What type of drugs are these and what are they primarily used for?
    • Thrombolytic Agents
    •  -- Acute thromboembolic events

    ALL: treat thrombosis associated with MI, and open occlusions of shunts and catheters
  19. What are Streptokinase and Urokinease indicated for...
    PE
  20. What is the only drug approved for the TREATMENT of DVTs?
    Streptokinase
  21. How do antiplatelet drugs work? 
    Affect initial step of coagulation, platelet adhesion. Prevents clots. 
  22. 1. Aspirin
    2. Clopidogrel- Plavix
    3. Ticlopidine- Ticlid

    What type of drugs are these? 
    Antiplatelets
  23. 1. Abciximab-Reopro
    2. Eptif ibatide- Integrilin
    3. Tibrofiban- Aggrastat

    What type of drugs are these? 
    GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors
  24. 1. Clopidogrel- Plavex
    2. Ticlopidine- Ticlid

    What type of drugs are these and how do they work? 
    • Antiplatelets. 
    • ADP Inhibitor

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