Card Set Information
On what two areas of study was psychology based?
Science of mental processes and behavior
What is a hypothesis?
A testable prediction derived from the theory
What is naturalistic observation?
Observing and recording the behavior of animals in the wild and recording self-seating patterns in a multiracial school lunchroom constitute naturalistic observation
What is a problem with the case study approach?
They suffer from limitations
What is a population and what is a sample?
Population consists of the entire group of individuals that one wishes to study Sampling- population, random sample
What is correlational research?
Often when observing behavior one might notice that several behaviors tend to occur together
What values can correlation coefficients take on?
A statistical measure of the strength of the relationship between two variables
What is a major advantage of experimental research?
It has a backbone of psychology research
What is a dependent variable?
affected by the independent variable
What is a placebo?
placebo is a pill or procedure prescribed more for the psychological benefit to the patient than for any physiological effect
What are the three major stages in most memory models?
Sensory memory- Short-tem memory- Long-term memory-
What is iconic memory?
Visual memory that is held in sensory memory
What is semantic memory?
Remembers word meanings (a dog is an animal); concepts (heat rises); general facts (my dog is named Oliver)
What is distributed practice?
Spacing the repetitions of to-be-remembered information over time
What is the serial position effect?
How well items are recalled
What is the method of loci? Know how it works.
A mnemonic device in which you choose some pathway, such as moving through the rooms in your house, and hen form visual images of the to-be-remembered items sitting in locations along the pathway
How long can information last in short-term memory if it is being rehearsed?
What is meant by the term “savings” in terms of memory research?
Measured how long it took to relearn the same material after various delay
What is the typical pattern of forgetting as found by Ebbinghaus?
Forgetting is initially rapid and levels off with time
What is decay theory?
Short-term memories are lost spontaneously over time, unless the memories are kept active through rehearsal
What is proactive interference?
A process in which old memories interfere with the establishment and recovery of new memories
What is the definition of the conscious mind according to Freud?
Current awareness- things that occupy the focus of your attention at the moment
What is the superego?
The part of a person’s mind that acts as a self-critical conscience, reflecting social standards learned from parents and teachers
What is the ego?
A person’s sense of self-esteem or self-importance
How does the ego-defense mechanism “repression” work?
A process that keeps anxiety producing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious
How does “reaction formation” work in terms of an ego defense?
You behave in a way that is counter to how you feel
Who proposed the notion of “fixation” and what does it mean?
Watson- the inability to see a problem from a fresh or new perspective
What is the second stage in Freud’s psychosexual stage model?
Anal stage- occurring in the 2nd year of life; pleasure is derived from the process of defecation
What are the characteristics of the oral stage in Freud’s model?
Oral stage- first year of life, pleasure is derived primarily from sucking and placing things in mouth
What is the order of stages in Freud’s model?
Oral, anal, phallic
What are the characteristics of the anal stage in Freud’s model?
What is the genital stage and when does it occur in Freud’s model?
Final stage, when one develops mature sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex