Anatomy Terminology 1.txt

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Anatomy Terminology 1.txt
2012-10-04 21:50:54
Anatomy Terminology

Anatomy Terminology 1
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  1. Abdomen
    The abdomen is the portion of the trunk located between the thorax and pelvis.  It contains the lower part of the esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, and bladder.  A serous membrane called the peritoneum lines this cavity, but not all of the organs in the abdomen are covered by this membrane.
  2. Adhesion
    An adhesion is an abnormal connection formed between two organs or surfaces inside a body cavity.  Adhesions may form following infection, trauma, or surgery.  They may be easily taken down or they may become densely developed causing symptoms and posing significant obstacles during subsequent surgical procedures. 

  3. Ancillary
    Ancillary refers to something that assists another action or effect but is not essential to the accomplishment of the action.
  4. Appendix
    The appendix is a worm-shaped process projecting from the blind end of the cecum and is lined with a continuation of the mucous membrane of the cecum.
  5. Bilateral
    Bilateral pertains to, affects, or relates to two sides.
  6. Bile
    Bile is a greenish-yellow or brownish fluid produced and secreted in the liver.  Bile aids in the digestive process by helping to break down fat.
  7. Biliary Tract
    The biliary tract is a system of organs and ducts that participate in the secretion, storage, and delivery of bile into the duodenum (which is the first portion of the small intestine).

  8. Bladder
    Bladder refers to a membranous sac or receptacle for a secretion, such as the gallbladder or the urinary bladder.
  9. Broad Ligament of the Uterus
    The broad ligament of the uterus contains folds of peritoneum attached to lateral borders of the uterus from insertion of the fallopian tube above the pelvic wall.It consists of two leaves between which are found the remnants of the wolffian ducts, cellular tissues, and the major blood vessels of the pelvis.

  10. Cardiac Sphincter
    The cardiac sphincter is a muscular opening of the proximal stomach which, when functioning, keeps stomach contents in place.
  11. Cecum
    The cecum is the first part of the large intestine.
  12. Cervix
    A cervix is the neck or the part of an organ resembling a neck.

  13. Colon
    The colon is the part of the large intestine that extends from the cecum to the rectum.
  14. Common Bile Duct
    The Common Bile Duct receives bile from the cystic duct of the gallbladder and the hepatic duct from the liver and delivers it to the duodenum.
  15. Crus
    The Crus is a fibromuscular band rising from the upper three or four lumbar vertebrae and ascending, along with the left crus to insert in the central tendon of the diaphragm (i.e., the right crura is actually divided by the esophagus, causing it to wrap around the esophagus itself).  Therefore, the right crura is actually on the right and left side of the esophagus.  Closing this crura eliminates a potential for herniation into the chest.

  16. Cystic Duct
    The cystic duct is the short duct that leads from the neck of the gallbladder to the common bile duct.  Within the cystic duct is a spiral valve that allows bile to flow in both directions between the gallbladder and the common hepatic duct and the common bile duct.

  17. Diaphragm
    The diaphragm is a musculomembranous wall separating the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity with its convexity upward.  It contracts with each inspiration, flattening out downward, permitting the descent of the bases of the lungs.   It relaxes with each expiration, elevating itself and restoring the inverted basin shape.

  18. Duodenum
    The duodenum is the first portion of the small intestine.It receives bile and gastric juices from the common bile duct and pancreatic juices from the pancreas.
  19. Ectopic
    Ectopic means in an abnormal position.  For example:Ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg implants anywhere other than the uterine wall.  Renal Ectopia occurs when both kidneys are located on the same side of the body.
  20. Endometriosis
    Endometriosis refers to ectopic endometrium located in various sites throughout the pelvis or in the abdominal cavity.  It is estimated this occurs in 1 to 7% of the women in the United States.
  21. Epithelium
    Epithelium is the layer of cells forming the epidermis of the skin and the surface layer of mucous and serous membranes.
  22. Esophagus
    The esophagus is a muscular canal extending from the pharynx to the stomach.This vital structure is essential for carrying swallowed foods and liquids from the mouth to the stomach.
  23. Esophageal
    Esophageal pertains to the esophagus.
  24. Fallopian Tube
    A fallopian tube stretches from the uterus to the ovaries and measures about 8 to 10 cm (4 to 6 inches) in length.
  25. Fascia
    Fascia is a fibrous membrane covering, supporting, and separating muscles.  Fascia may be superficial, a nearly subcutaneous covering permitting free movement of the skin, or it may be deep, enveloping and binding muscles.
  26. Fascial Hernia
    A fascial hernia is a protrusion of muscular tissue through its fascial covering.

  27. Femoral Hernia
    A femoral hernia is intestines that descend through the femoral ring.

  28. Fundus
    A fundus is the larger part, base, or body of a hollow organ.
  29. Fundus of the Stomach
    Fundus of the stomach is the uppermost portion of the stomach, posterior and lateral to the entrance of the esophagus.

  30. Gallbladder
    A gallbladder is a hollow muscular, pear-shaped organ that receives bile from the liver and discharges it into the duodenum. While in the gallbladder, the bile is concentrated by removing water.  About 500 to 600ml of bile is secreted each day and it is approximately 82% water.  The bile is then discharged through the cystic duct, which is 3 to 4 inches long.The cystic duct leads to the common bile duct which empties into the small intestine.

  31. Gallstone
    A gallstone is formed in the gallbladder or bile ducts. The most common type is the cholesterol-containing stone.  Gallstones vary in size and chemical structure.  A gallstone may be as tiny as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball.  Eighty percent of gallstones are composed of cholesterol. They are formed when the liver produces more cholesterol than digestive juices can liquefy.  The remaining 20% of gallstones are composed of calcium and an orange-yellow waste product called bilirubin.
  32. Gastric Ulcer
    A gastric ulcer is an ulcer occurring in the mucous membrane of the stomach.
  33. Gastroesophageal Junction
    Gastroesophageal Junction (also called the G E Junction) is the joining of the esophagus and the stomach at the cardiac sphincter.

  34. Gerota’s Capsule or Fascia
    Gerota’s Capsule or Fascia refers to the perirenal fascia (which extends around the kidney).
  35. Hepatic Ducts
    Hepatic ducts extend from the liver and carry bile to the cystic and common bile duct.The left and right hepatic ducts join to form the common hepatic duct.
  36. Hepatic Flexture
    The hepatic flexture is the right bend of the colon under the liver (which is the junction of the ascending and transverse colon).

  37. Hernia
    A hernia is an abnormal protrusion of part of an organ through a weakened muscle or through a dilated opening.

  38. Hernia of the Diaphragm
    There are three types of diaphragmatic hernia: congenital, acquired, or traumatic.

  39. Hernial Sac
    A hernial sac is a pouch of peritoneum pushed before a hernia and into which the hernia descends.

  40. Hesselbach’s Triangle
    Hesselbach’s Triangle is a key anatomical landmark for hernia surgery.It is the interval of the groin bounded by Poupart’s ligament, the edge of the rectus muscle, and the deep epigastric artery.

  41. Hiatal Hernia
    A hiatal hernia is an anatomical abnormality in which part of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragm and up into the chest.

  42. Hiatus
    Hiatus is an opening in the diaphragm which allows passage of the esophagus into the abdominal cavity.

  43. Hilum/Hilus
    A hilum (formerly called a hilus) is a depression or recess where structures are attached.In human anatomy, the hilum is part of an organ where structures such as blood vessels and nerves enter.  For example: the hilum of the kidney (which admits the rental artery, vein, ureter, and nerves) is the medial depression for blood vessels and ureter to enter the kidney chamber.
  44. Ileocecal Valve
    An ileocecal valve refers to sphincter muscles thatclose the ileum at the point where the small intestinesopen into the ascending colon.It prevents food material from re-entering the smallintestine.

  45. Ileum
    The ileum is the lower portion of the small intestinesfrom the jejunum to the ileocecal valve.The function of the ileum is mainly to absorb vitaminB12 and bile salts and whatever products of digestionwere not absorbed by the jejunum.

  46. Ilium/Iliac
    The Ilium (also known as the Iliac) is the largest boneof the pelvis.
  47. Infertility
    Infertility is the inability or diminished ability to produceoffspring.This condition may be present in either or both sexualpartners and is usually reversible.
  48. Inguinal
    Inguinal refers to the region of the groin.
  49. Inguinal Hernia
    An inguinal hernia is the protrusion of the hernial sac containing the intestine at the inguinal opening.  With an indirect inguinal hernia, the sac protrudes through the internal inguinal ring into the inguinal canal,often descending into the scrotum.  With a direct inguinal hernia, the hernial sac protrudes through the abdominal wall in the region ofHesselbach’s triangle.  Inguinal hernias account for about 80% of all hernias.

  50. Infundibulum
    Infundibulum is a hollow, funnel-shaped structure orpassage.
  51. In situ-
    In situ- means in its natural position without disturbingor invading surrounding tissue (in the natural position).
  52. Invaginate
    Invaginate means to enclose or become enclosed as if in a sheath.
  53. Jejunum
    The jejunum is the second portion of the small intestineextending from the duodenum to the ileum.

  54. Liver
    The liver is a large organ that is situated in the upperright part of the abdomen. It serves several functions:

    • -Storage and filtration of blood
    • -Secretion of bile
    • -Excretion of bilirubin and other substances
    • -Numerous metabolic functions such as theconversion of sugar to glycogen.

  55. McBurney’s Point
    McBurney’s Point is the point of tenderness in acuteappendicitis, which is situated on a line between theumbilicus and the right anterior superior iliac spine,about 1 or 2 inches above the later.

  56. Mediastinum
    Mediastinum is the sac-like structure in the chestbetween the lungs and diaphragm that contains theheart, esophagus, and bronchus.

  57. Mesentery
    The Mesentery is a peritoneal fold encircling thegreater part of the small intestines and blood supplythat connects the intestine to the posterior abdominalwall.
  58. Obstetrics
    Obstetrics is a branch of medicine that manageswomen during pregnancy and childbirth.
  59. Omentum
    Greater omentum is a peritoneal fold suspended fromthe greater curvature of the stomach and attached tothe anterior surface of the transverse colon.Lesser omentum is a peritoneal fold joining the lessercurvature of the stomach and the first part of theduodenum.

  60. Ovary
    The ovary is one of the two glands in the female thatproduce the reproductive cell called the ovum and twoknown hormones.
  61. Parietal
    Parietal relates to or forms the wall of a body part,organ, or cavity.
  62. Peritoneum
    Peritoneum is a membrane reflected over the visceraand lining of the abdominal cavity.
  63. Peritoneal Cavity
    The Peritoneal Cavity is a potential space betweenlayers of the parietal and visceral peritoneum.  A small amount of fluid is contained in the space. This minimizes friction as viscera glide on each other oragainst the wall of the abdominal cavity.

  64. Rectus Muscles
    The rectus muscles are two external abdominalmuscles, one on each side, from the pubic bone to the5th, 6th, and 7th ribs.

  65. Round Ligament
    Round Ligament is attached to the uterus immediatelybelow and in front of the entrance of the fallopian tube.
  66. Serosa
    Serosa is a serous membrane that lines thepericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities, enclosingtheir contents.In this example, this serosa is the outer layer of thebowel.
  67. Short Gastric Arteries
    Short Gastric Arteries are branches of the maingastric artery located on the greater curvature of the stomach.  Anatomic variations may necessitate transection of theshort gastric vessels to facilitate the Nissen Fundoplication procedure (which is the surgicalreduction of the size of the stomach’s fundus openingand suturing the previously removed end of theesophagus to it).