A&P Chp. 7

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A&P Chp. 7
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2012-10-03 18:49:23
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anatomy physiology chapter skeletal tissues
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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 7 Skeletal Tissues
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  1. What are the four types of bones based on shape?
    • Long bones
    • Short bones
    • Flat bones
    • Irregular bones
  2. What are the two types of bones based on shape?
    • Compact or cortical bone
    • Cancellous, spongy, or medullary bone
  3. What is the functional unit of compact bone?
    Osteons/Haversian systems
  4. Cancellous bone is characterized by these needle-like structures.
    Trabecullae
  5. The open spaces of the trabecullae is partially filled with...
    red bone marrow.
  6. What are the two main structural components of a long bone?
    • Diaphysis - main shaft
    • Epiphyses - the ends
  7. What is the main function of long bones?
    Function is to provide strong support without cumbersome weight.
  8. What part of long bones will you find red bone marrow?
    Epiphyses
  9. What is the main function of the epiphyses of long bones?
    Function is to provide attachments for muscles and give stability to joints.
  10. Layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the articular surface of epiphyses.
    Articular cartilage
  11. What is the main function of articular cartilage?
    Function is to cushion jolts and blows.
  12. This part of the long bone has the following characteristics:

    Dense, white, fibrous membrane that covers bone Attaches muscle tendons firmly to bones
    Contains cells that form (osteoblasts) and destroy (osteoclasts) bone
    Contains blood vessels important in growth and repair
    Contains blood vessels that send branches into bone (through volkman’s canals & Haversian canals)
    Essential for bone cell survival and bone formation
    Periosteum
  13. What is the main function of the periosteum of long bones?
    Attaches muscle tendons firmly to bones.
  14. Thin epithelial membrane that lines medullary cavity of long bones.
    Endosteum
  15. Spaces inside cancellous bone of a few irregular and flat bones are filled with...
    red marrow.
  16. Bone tissue is the most distinctive form of this type of tissue.
    Connective tissue
  17. Components of bone tissue that are hard and calcified.
    Extracellular components
  18. What characteristic of bone allows it to serve its supportive and protective functions.
    Rigidity
  19. What is bone's tensile strength nearly equal to at less than one third the weight.
    Cast iron
  20. What are the two general components of bone matrix?
    • Inorganic salts
    • Organic matrix
  21. Highly specialized chemical crystals of calcium and phosphate in the bone matrix that contribute to bone hardness.
    Hydroxyapatite
  22. Besides calcium and phosphate, what other two inorganic salts are found in the bone matrix?
    • Magnesium
    • Sodium
  23. Composite of collagenous fibers and an amorphous mixture of protein and polysaccharides in the organic portion of the bone matrix.
    Ground substance
  24. Ground substance is secreted by...
    connective tissue cells.
  25. The function of the organic portion of bone matrix is that it...
    adds to overall strength of bone and gives some degree of resilience to the bone.
  26. These transverse canals connect to the Haversian canals that run lengthwise through the bone.
    Volmann's canals
  27. What are the main functions of osteons?
    Osteons permit delivery of nutrients and removal of waste products
  28. What are the four structures that make up each osteon?
    • Lamella
    • Lacunae
    • Canaliculi
    • Haversian canal
  29. Concentric, cylinder-shaped layers of calcified matrix.
    Lamella
  30. Small spaces containing tissue fluid in which bone cells are located between hard layers of the lamella.
    Lacunae
  31. Ultrasmall canals radiating in all directions from the lacunae and connecting them to each other and to the Haversian canal.
    Canaliculi
  32. Extends lengthwise through the center of each osteon and contains blood vessels and lymphatic vessels.
    Haversian canal
  33. How are nutrients delivered and waste products removed in cancellous bone?
    Canaliculi
  34. Where do bone cells get their blood supply?
    Red bone marrow
  35. Bone-forming cells found in all bone surfaces.
    Osteoblasts
  36. Bone cell with the following characteristics:

    Bone-destroying cells found also on bone surface
    Giant multinucleate cells
    Responsible for the active erosion of bone minerals
    Contain large numbers of mitochondria and lysosomes
    Osteoclasts
  37. Mature, nondividing osteoblast surrounded by matrix, lying within lacunae.
    Osteocytes
  38. Osteoblasts synthesize and secrete...
    • osteoid, an important part of the ground substance.
    • Collagen fibrils line up in osteoid and serve as a framework for the deposition of calcium and phosphate.
  39. Bone marrow is made of this specialized type of soft, diffuse connective tissue.
    Myeloid tissue
  40. Where are blood cells produced?
    Red bone marrow
  41. Where are yellow and red bone marrow located?
    • Found in medullary cavities of long bones (yellow inactive-fat)
    • The spaces of spongy bone (red-active-hematopoietic tissue)
  42. The two types of bone marrow.
    • Red
    • Yellow
  43. True or False.  Red marrow is found in virtually all bones in an infant’s or child’s body.
    True
  44. As an individual ages, red marrow is replaced by...
    yellow marrow.
  45. What does yellow marrow become saturated with?
    Fat
  46. Does yellow marrow produce blood cells?
    No
  47. What are the main bones in an adult that still contain red marrow?
    • Ribs
    • Bodies of the vertebrae
    • Pelvis
    • Proximal ends of the humerus and femur
  48. What three instances does yellow marrow alter to red marrow?
    • Decreased blood supply, such as with anemia
    • Exposure to radiation
    • Certain diseases
  49. What are the five main functions of bone?
    • Support
    • Protection
    • Movement
    • Mineral storage
    • Hematopoiesis
  50. Term for blood cell formation that is carried out by myeloid tissue.
    Hematopoiesis
  51. What percent of calcium reserves are stored in the skeletal system?
    98 percent
  52. How is homeostasis of calcium maintained in the blood?
    Bone remodeling
  53. What four things make homeostasis of calcium ion concentration essential:
    • Bone formation, remodeling, and repair
    • Blood clotting
    • Transmission of nerve impulses
    • Maintenance of skeletal and cardiac muscle contraction
  54. What two hormones regulate calcium homeostasis?
    • Parathyroid hormone
    • Calcitonin
  55. What hormone is the primary regulator of calcium homeostasis?
    Parathyroid hormone
  56. How does parathyroid hormone increases blood calcium levels (3 things)?
    • Stimulates osteoclasts to initiate breakdown of bone matrix and increase blood calcium levels
    • Increases renal absorption of calcium from urine
    • Stimulates vitamin D synthesis
  57. Protein hormone produced in the thyroid gland in response to high blood calcium levels (it decreases blood calcium levels).
    Calcitonin
  58. What two things does calcitonin do to decrease blood calcium levels?
    • Stimulates bone deposition by osteoblasts
    • Inhibits osteoclastic activity
  59. Is calcitonin as important as parathyroid hormone in the regulation of calcium homeostasis?
    Calcitonin is far less important in homeostasis of blood calcium levels than parathyroid hormone.
  60. Combined action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to mold bones into adult shape.
    Osteogenesis
  61. Type of osteogenesis that occurs within a connective tissue membrane.
    Intramembranous ossification
  62. Intramembranous ossification is osteogenesis for what two bone types?
    • Flat bones
    • Spongy bones
  63. Type of osteogenesis that forms the long bones and compact bone.
    Endochondral ossification
  64. Type of osteogenesis where most bones begin as a cartilage model, with bone formation spreading essentially from the center to the ends.
    Endochondral ossification
  65. Cartilage plage that is between the epiphysis and the diaphysis and allows growth to occur; sometimes referred to as a growth plate.
    Epiphyseal plate
  66. What are the four layers of the epiphyseal plate from top to bottom?
    • “Resting” cartilage cells —point of attachment joining the epiphysis to the shaft
    • Zone of proliferation —cartilage cells undergoing active mitosis, causing the layer to thicken and the plate to increase in length
    • Zone of hypertrophy —older, enlarged cells undergoing degenerative changes associated with calcium deposition
    • Zone of calcification —dead or dying cartilage cells undergoing rapid calcification
  67. The term that describes the following:

    -Bones grow in diameter by the combined action of osteoclasts and osteoblasts
    -Osteoclasts enlarge the diameter of the medullary cavity
    -Osteoblasts from the periosteum build new bone around the outside of the bone
    Bone remodeling
  68. Blood clot occurring immediately after the fracture, is then resorbed and replaced by callus.
    Fracture hematoma
  69. This initiates repair of fractures.
    Vascular damage
  70. Specialized repair tissue that binds the broken ends of the fracture together.
    Callus
  71. Is cartilage vascular or avascular?
    Avascular
  72. How do chondrocytes receive oxygen and nutrients?
    Diffusion
  73. What is responsible for appositional cartilage growth?
    Inner cellular layer of the perichondrium
  74. What are the three types of cartilage?
    • Hyaline
    • Elastic
    • Fibrocartilage
  75. What is the most common type of cartilage?
    Hyaline
  76. This type of cartilage covers the articular surfaces of bones.
    Hyaline
  77. This type of cartilage forms the costal cartilages, cartilage rings in the trachea, bronchi  of the lungs, and the tip of the nose. 
    Hyaline
  78. Type of cartilage that forms external ear, epiglottis, and eustachian tubes
    Elastic cartilage
  79. Strongest type of cartilage.
    Fibrocartilage
  80. Type of cartilage that occurs in symphysis pubis and intervertebral disks.
    Fibrocartilage
  81. What are three functions of cartilage?
    • Gristle-like nature permits cartilage to sustain great weight or serve as a shock absorber
    • Strong yet pliable support structure
    • Permits growth in length of long bones
  82. Name the type of cartilage growth:

    -Cartilage cells divide and secrete additional matrix
    -Seen during childhood and early adolescence while cartilage is still soft and capable of expansion from within
    Interstitial or endogenous growth
  83. Cartilage growth following following mitosis and secretion of matrix by chondrocytes; interstitial growth of epiphyseal plate results in growth in length of long bones.
    Interstitial or endogenous growth
  84. What are the two types of cartilage growth?
    • Interstitial or endogenous growth
    • Appositional or exogenous growth
  85. Name the type of cartilage growth:

    -Chondrocytes in the deep layer of the perichondrium divide and secrete matrix
    -New matrix is deposited on the surface, increasing its size
    -Unusual in early childhood but, once initiated, continues throughout life
    Appositional or exogenous growth
  86. Most bones of the body are formed from cartilage models in a process called...
    endochondral ossification.
  87. Calcification of the organic bone matrix occurs when:
    complex calcium salts are deposited in the matrix.
  88. Until bone growth in length is complete, a layer of the cartilage, known as the _____, remains between the epiphysis and diaphysis.
    epiphyseal plate
  89. Appositional growth of cartilage occurs when chondrocytes begin to divide and secrete...
    additional matrix.
  90. Compact bone contains many cylinder-shaped structural units called:
    lamellae.
  91. Scapulae are example of ____ bones.
    flat
  92. The patella is an example of a ____ bone.
    sesamoid
  93. The carpal is an example of a ____ bone.
    short
  94. Vertebra is an example of an ____ bone.
    irregular
  95. The cells that produce the organic matrix in bone are:
    osteoblasts.  They secrete osteoid.
  96. The primary ossification center is located in the:
    diaphysis.
  97. Secondary ossification centers are located in the:
    epyphyses.
  98. Bone loss normally begins to exceed bone gain between the ages of:
    35 and 40 years.
  99. When bones have grown their full length, the epypheseal plate...
    disappears.

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