Patho 3

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Author:
cgordon05
ID:
17530
Filename:
Patho 3
Updated:
2010-05-03 17:09:15
Tags:
Renal BP
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Description:
Renal and BP
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  1. What are the mechanisms involved in kidney's role in BP?
    (p.20)
    • Renin-angiotensin mechanism
    • Sodium homeostasis
    • Renal vasodepressor substances (dilators)
  2. What is kidney's role in regulating BP?
    HUMORAL FACTORS
    • Constrictors - increase BP
    • = angiotensin II - most powerful vasoconstrictor
    • = catecholamines
    • = thromboxanes
    • = leukotrienes
    • = endothelin
    • Dilators - decreased vascular resistance, decreased BP, relaxing factors
    • = prostaglandins
    • = kinins
    • = nitric oxide / EDRF
  3. What is kidney's role in regulating BP?
    VOLUME FACTORS
    • sodium --> drink water --> retain volume
    • mineralcorticoids - encourage sodium retention --> volume retention
    • atrial natriuretic peptides - encourage volume retention
  4. What are determinants of arterial BP?
    (p.19)
    BP = CO x PR

    • CO = cardiac output
    • PR = peripheral resistance
  5. Blood Pressure is influenced by ...
    • Blood volume
    • Humoral factors
    • Cardiac factors
    • Neural factors
    • Local factors
  6. What effect do humoral factors have on renal vasculature (e.g., PGE2)?
    (p.20)
    • PGE2 - prostaglandin E2 - Relaxing Factors
    • = cause vasodilation
    • = improves glomerular blood flow
    • = decrease ischemia
    • = counterbalance effects of vasoactive agents - renin, endothelin, angiotensin
  7. Essential Hypertension
    (p.19)
    • 90%
    • Idiopathic
    • Cause unknown
  8. Secondary Hypertension
    • 10%
    • Causes:
    • = renal disease
    • = narrowing of renal artery from atheromatous plaque
    • = adrenal disorders
    • - aldosteronism
    • - Cushing's
    • - pheochromocytoma
  9. What physiologic factors contribue to essential hypertension?
    • lifestyle
    • genetics
  10. Risk factors for hypertension
    (p.21-22)
    • genetics
    • race - African-American
    • age - 35-45 yrs
    • sex - female > male; females better prognosis
    • environmental - stress
    • diet - obesity and salt
  11. Treatment and management of hypertension
    • weight loss
    • diet - decrease sodium (Na+), increase potassium (K+)
    • exercise
    • decrease alcohol
    • stop smoking
    • medication if needed
  12. What effect does cytosolic Ca2+ and Mg2+ have on arterial smooth muscle cells?
    (p.23)
    • Calcium = constriction
    • Magnesium = dilation

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