AP Psychology Unit 3C Vocabulary

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AP Psychology Unit 3C Vocabulary
2012-10-04 15:45:37
AP Psychology Unit 3C Vocabulary

AP Psychology Unit 3C Vocabulary
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  1. The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
    Behavior genetics
  2. Every non-genetic influence, from pre-natal nutrition to the people and things around us.
  3. Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
  4. A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
    DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
  5. The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein.
  6. The complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes.
  7. Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms.
    Identical twins
  8. Twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
    Fraternal twins
  9. The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The ____________ of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
  10. The interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity).
  11. The subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
    Molecular genetics
  12. The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
    Evolutionary psychology
  13. The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
    Natural selection
  14. A random error in gene replication that leads to a change.
  15. One major criticism of the evolutionary perspective in psychology is that...
    It analyzes after the fact using hindsight.
  16. Evolutionary psychologists seek to understand how traits and behavioral tendencies have been shaped by...
    Natural selection.
  17. Which of the following is not one of the main criticisms of the evolutionary psychology explanation of human sexuality?
    This perspective discounts important genetics influences.
  18. Thomas Bouchard's study of twins is notable, because...
    He discovered almost unbelievable similarities between adult identical twins who had been separated near birth.
  19. The extent to which variaton among members of a group can be attributed to genes is called...
  20. Your genetic code...
    Exists in its entirety in every cell of your body.
  21. Which of the following statements has been supported by the research of evolutionary psychologists?
    Mean are attracted to women who appear fertile and capable of bearing children.
  22. Which of the following is an example of a phenomenon that could be explained by natural selection?
    Women tend to seek men who can provide protection for their children because this has increased the survival rate of children in the past.
  23. When the mother's egg and the father's sperm unite, each contribues..
    23 chromosomes
  24. Researchers find the study of fraternal twins important, because...
    They are the same age and are usually raised in similar environments, but they do not have the same genetic code.
  25. Heritability refers to the percentage of..
    Group variation in a trait that can be explained by genetics.
  26. Threadlike structure made of DNA molecules that contain the genes are called...
  27. The study of specific genes and teams of genes that influence behavior is called...
    Molecular genetics
  28. The interplay of environment and heredity is called..
  29. In an effort to reveal genetic influences on personality, researchers use adoption studies mainly to...
    Evaluate whether adopted children more closely resemble their adoptive parents or their biological parents.
  30. Genes
  31. Environment.
  32. Genes can be either...
    Active (expressed) or inactive.
  33. When turned on, what do genes provide the code for creating?
    Protein molecules, the building blocks of pysical development.
  34. Heritability refers instead to the extent to which...
    Differences among people are attributiable to genes.
  35. Heritable individual differences need not imply..
    Heritable group differences.
  36. What is the goal of molecular behavior genetics?
    To find some of the many genes that influence normal human traits, such as body weight, sexual orientation, and extraversion, and also to explore the mechanisms that control gene expression.
  37. Heritability is extenet to which variation among...
    indivduals is due to their differing genes.
  38. Our ability to survive and reproduce.
  39. Criticisms of evolutionary psychologists..
    • (1) Starts with an effect and works backward to propose an explanation
    • (2) Unethical and immoral men could use such explanations to rationalize their behavior toward women
    • (3) This explanation overlooks the effects of cultural expectations and socialization
  40. The principle that we should prefer the simplest of competing explanations.
    Oscam's razor
  41. Historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth.
    Humanistic psychology