The Sigmoid Colon is the lower part of the descendingcolon, between the iliac crest and the rectum.
Sphincter of Oddi
Sphincter of Oddi refers to the smooth muscles surrounding the Ampulla of Vater, which regulate the flow of bile and pancreatic juices into the duodenum.
The spleen is an elongated, dark red organ lying in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, posterior and inferior to the stomach. Primary functions are blood formation, blood storage,and blood filtration.
The splenic flexture is the junction of the transverse and descending colon, making a bend on the left sidenear the spleen.
The splenic vein carries blood from the spleen to theportal vein.
The stomach is a muscular organ whose purpose isthe initial digestion of food.Portions of the stomach include the Fundus (uppermostportion), the body (middle portion), and the pylorus(distal end).
A Strangulated Hernia is so tightly constricted that gangrene results if surgery does not relieve it.
Triangle of Calot
The Triangle of Calot is a key anatomical landmark especially related to cholecystectomy. It refers to the triangle formed between the cystic duct, the hepatic duct and the cystic artery.
The umbilicus is the scar marking the site of the umbilical cord attachment in the fetus. It is also known as the navel.
The ureter is the muscular tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.
The urethra is the membranous canal that connectsthe urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
The uterus is a hollow muscular organ in the female pelvis where the fertilized ovum embeds and in which the developing emryo and fetus are nourished.
The vagina is a canal in the female that extends from the vulva to the neck of the uterus.
The vagus nerve runs parallel to the esophagus. The terminal end of the nerve stimulates secretion of hydrochloric acid by the stomach.
Valves of Heister
The Valves of Heister are one way valves located in the gallbladder neck and cystic duct that prevent backflow of bile during gallbladder contraction.
The Inferior Vena Cava is the principal vein draining the lower portion of the body. The Superior Vena Cava is the principal vein draining the upper portion of the body.
A ventral hernia is a protrusion through the abdominal wall. If stretching and thinning of an abdominal scar occurs, pressure from the abdomen may cause protrusion of part of the gut. It is then protected only by a layer of thin scar tissue.